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Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Cam

Search Health Information    Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2

Uses

What Are Star Ratings?

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Used for Why
3 Stars
Anemia
5 to 30 mg daily in divided doses
Vitamin B2 deficiency can contribute to anemia, supplementing with this vitamin may restore levels and improve symptoms.

Deficiencies of iron , vitamin B12 , and folic acid are the most common nutritional causes of anemia.1 Although rare, severe deficiencies of several other vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A ,2 , 3 vitamin B2 ,4 vitamin B6 ,5 , 6 vitamin C ,7 and copper ,8 , 9 can also cause anemia by various mechanisms. Rare genetic disorders can cause anemias that may improve with large amounts of supplements such as vitamin B1 .10 , 11

3 Stars
Migraine Headache (For adults only )
400 mg daily
Studies have shown vitamin B2 to be effective at reducing the frequency and severity of migraine headaches.

One group of researchers treated 49 migraine patients with large amounts of vitamin B2 (400 mg per day). Both the frequency and severity of migraines decreased by more than two-thirds.12 In a follow-up three-month, double-blind trial, the same researchers reported that 59% of patients assigned to receive vitamin B2 had at least a 50% reduction in the number of headache days, whereas only 15% of those assigned to receive a placebo experienced that degree of improvement.13 The effects of vitamin B2 were most pronounced during the final month of the trial.14 In a preliminary study, a much smaller amount of vitamin B2 (25 mg per day for three months) reduced the frequency of migraines by about one-third in chronic migraine sufferers.15

All of the studies that found riboflavin to be effective for preventing migraine were conducted in adults. In a double-blind trial, supplementation with 200 mg per day of riboflavin did not decrease the frequency or severity of migraines in children whose average age was 11 years.16

2 Stars
Cataracts
3 mg daily with 40 mg daily vitamin B3
Vitamin B2 is needed to protect glutathione, an important antioxidant in the eye. In one study, supplementing with vitamin B2 prevented cataracts in people who were deficient.

People with low blood levels of antioxidants and those who eat few antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables have been reported to be at high risk for cataracts.17 , 18

Vitamin B2 and vitamin B3 are needed to protect glutathione , an important antioxidant in the eye. Vitamin B2 deficiency has been linked to cataracts.19 , 20 Older people taking 3 mg of vitamin B2 and 40 mg of vitamin B3 per day were partly protected against cataracts in one trial.21 However, the intake of vitamin B2 in China is relatively low, and it is not clear whether supplementation would help prevent cataracts in populations where vitamin B2 intake is higher.

2 Stars
High Homocysteine
1.6 mg daily
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) supplementation has been shown to lower homocysteine levels in certain people.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) supplementation (1.6 mg per day) has been shown to lower homocysteine levels by 22 to 40% in a subset of the population that has a certain genetic variant of an enzyme involved in folic acid metabolism (the 677Cà T polymorphism for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene).22 Approximately 15 to 20% of the population carries this gene and could benefic from taking riboflavin. Since genetic testing is expensive and not readily available, it would seem reasonable for all people trying to lower their homocysteine levels to include riboflavin in their regimen of B vitamin supplementation.

2 Stars
Parkinson’s Disease
30 mg three times a day
In one study, people with Parkinson’s disease who had vitamin B2 (riboflavin) deficiency and supplemented with riboflavin experienced improved motor capacity.

In a preliminary study of 31 Brazilian individuals with Parkinson’s disease, all had laboratory evidence of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) deficiency. Nineteen of these individuals received 30 mg of supplemental riboflavin three times a day for six months. After three months, all participants treated with riboflavin demonstrated an improvement in motor capacity, and this improvement was either maintained or greater at six months.23 The participants in this study also eliminated red meat from their diet, but it is not clear whether that dietary change played any role in the observed improvement.

1 Star
Preeclampsia
Refer to label instructions
Women who are deficient in vitamin B2 (riboflavin) are more likely to develop preeclampsia than women with normal levels. Supplementation may correct a deficiency.

Women who are deficient in vitamin B2 (riboflavin) are more likely to develop preeclampsia than women with normal vitamin B2 levels.24 These results were observed in a developing country, where vitamin B2 deficiencies are more common than in the United States. Nevertheless, insufficient vitamin B2 may contribute to the abnormalities underlying the disease process.

How It Works

How to Use It

The ideal level of intake is not known. The amounts found in many multivitamin supplements (20–25 mg) are more than adequate for most people.

Where to Find It

Dairy products, eggs, and meat contain significant amounts of vitamin B2. Leafy green vegetables, whole grains, and enriched grains contain some vitamin B2.

Possible Deficiencies

Vitamin B2 deficiency can occur in alcoholics . Also, a deficiency may be more likely in people with cataracts 25 , 26 or sickle cell anemia .27 In developing countries, vitamin B2 deficiency has been found to be a risk factor for the development of preeclampsia in pregnant women.28 People with chronic fatigue syndrome may be deficient in vitamin B2.29

Interactions

Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

Vitamin B2 works with vitamin B1 , vitamin B3 , and vitamin B6 . For that reason, vitamin B2 is often taken as part of a B-complex supplement.

Interactions with Medicines

Certain medicines interact with this supplement.

Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

Replenish Depleted Nutrients

  • Desogestrel-Ethinyl Estradiol

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.37 , 38 , 39 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .40 , 41 , 42 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.43 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Doxorubicin
    Animal studies suggest that doxorubicin interferes with the body's utilization of riboflavin (vitamin B2). In rats, supplementation with riboflavin prevented the development of cardiac abnormalities resulting from treatment with doxorubicin47.
    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Levonorgestrel

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.48 , 49 , 50 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .51 , 52 , 53 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.54 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Norethindrone

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.55 , 56 , 57 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .58 , 59 , 60 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.61 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Norgestimate

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.62 , 63 , 64 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .65 , 66 , 67 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.68 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Norgestrel

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.69 , 70 , 71 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .72 , 73 , 74 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.75 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Levonorgestrel

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.77 , 78 , 79 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .80 , 81 , 82 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.83 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Levonorgestrel-Ethinyl Estrad

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.84 , 85 , 86 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .87 , 88 , 89 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.90 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Mestranol and Norethindrone

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.91 , 92 , 93 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .94 , 95 , 96 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.97 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Norgestimate-Ethinyl Estradiol

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1 , B2 , B3 , B12 , C , and zinc levels.98 , 99 , 100 OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A .101 , 102 , 103 OCs may interfere with manganese absorption.104 The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Tetracycline

    Tetracycline can interfere with the activity of folic acid , potassium , and vitamin B2 , vitamin B6 , vitamin B12 , vitamin C , and vitamin K .107 This is generally not a problem when taking tetracycline for two weeks or less. People taking tetracycline for longer than two weeks should ask their doctor about vitamin and mineral supplementation. Taking 500 mg vitamin C simultaneously with tetracycline was shown to increase blood levels of tetracycline in one study.108 The importance of this interaction is unknown.

Reduce Side Effects

  • AZT

    Persons with AIDS have developed lactic acidosis and fatty liver while taking AZT and other drugs in its class. AZT can inhibit crucial DNA-related riboflavin activity, which may be normalized by riboflavin supplementation. A 46-year-old woman with AIDS and lactic acidosis received a single dose of 50 mg of riboflavin, after which her laboratory tests returned to normal and her lactic acidosis was completely resolved.31 More research is needed to confirm the value of riboflavin for preventing and treating this side effect.

  • Didanosine

    Persons with AIDS have developed lactic acidosis and fatty liver while taking didanosine and other drugs in its class. Didanosine can inhibit crucial DNA-related riboflavin activity, which may be normalized by riboflavin supplementation. A 46-year-old woman with AIDS and lactic acidosis received a single dose of 50 mg of riboflavin, after which her laboratory tests returned to normal and her lactic acidosis was completely resolved.44 More research is needed to confirm the value of riboflavin for preventing and treating this side effect.

  • Doxorubicin

    Animal research suggests doxorubicin may deplete riboflavin and that riboflavin deficiency promotes doxorubicin toxicity.46

Support Medicine

  • Amitriptyline

    Giving 10 mg per day each of vitamins B1 , B2 , and B6 to elderly, depressed persons already on tricyclic antidepressants improved their depression and ability to think more than placebo did.30 The subjects in this study were institutionalized, so it is unclear if these results apply to persons living at home.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Clomipramine

    Giving 10 mg per day each of vitamins B1 , B2 , and B6 to elderly, depressed persons already on tricyclic antidepressants improved their depression and ability to think more than placebo did.32 The subjects in this study were institutionalized, so it is unclear if these results apply to persons living at home.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Desipramine

    Giving 10 mg per day each of vitamins B1 , B2 , and B6 to elderly, depressed persons already on tricyclic antidepressants improved their depression and ability to think more than placebo did.33 The subjects in this study were institutionalized, so it is unclear if these results apply to persons living at home.

    Combination of 6 grams per day L-tryptophan and 1,500 mg per day niacinamide (a form of vitamin B3) with imipramine has shown to be more effective than imipramine alone for people with bipolar disorder .34 These levels did not improve the effects of imipramine in people with depression . Lower amounts (4 grams per day of L-tryptophan and 1,000 mg per day of niacinamide) did show some tendency to enhance the effect of imipramine.

    The importance of the amount of L-tryptophan was confirmed in other studies, suggesting that if too much L-tryptophan (6 grams per day) is used, it is not beneficial, while levels around 4 grams per day may make tricyclic antidepressants work better.35 , 36

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Doxepin

    Giving 10 mg per day each of vitamins B1 , B2 , and B6 to elderly, depressed persons already on tricyclic antidepressants improved their depression and ability to think more than placebo did.45 The subjects in this study were institutionalized, so it is unclear if these results apply to persons living at home.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Imipramine

    Giving 10 mg per day each of vitamins B1 , B2 , and B6 to elderly, depressed persons already on tricyclic antidepressants improved their depression and ability to think more than placebo did.76 The subjects in this study were institutionalized, so it is unclear if these results apply to persons living at home.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Nortriptyline

    Giving 10 mg per day each of vitamins B1 , B2 , and B6 to elderly, depressed persons already on tricyclic antidepressants improved their depression and ability to think more than placebo did.105 The subjects in this study were institutionalized, so it is unclear if these results apply to persons living at home.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Protriptyline

    Giving 10 mg per day each of vitamins B1 , B2 , and B6 to elderly, depressed persons already on tricyclic antidepressants improved their depression and ability to think more than placebo did.106 The subjects in this study were institutionalized, so it is unclear if these results apply to persons living at home.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Trimipramine

    Giving 10 mg per day each of vitamins B1 , B2 , and B6 to elderly, depressed persons already on tricyclic antidepressants improved their depression and ability to think more than placebo did.109 The subjects in this study were institutionalized, so it is unclear if these results apply to persons living at home.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

Reduces Effectiveness

  • none

Potential Negative Interaction

  • none

Explanation Required

  • none

The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

Side Effects

Side Effects

At supplemental and dietary levels, vitamin B2 is nontoxic.

References

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2. Hodges RE, Sauberlich HE, Canham JE, et al. Hematopoietic studies in vitamin A deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:876–85 [review].

3. Bloem MW. Interdependence of vitamin A and iron: an important association for programmes of anaemia control. Proc Nutr Soc 1995;54:501–8 [review].

4. Lane M, Alfrey CP. The anemia of human riboflavin deficiency. Blood 1965;25:432–42.

5. Orehek AJ, Kollas CD. Refractory postpartum anemia due to vitamin B6 deficiency. Ann Intern Med 1997;126(10):834–5 [letter].

6. Iwama H, Iwase O, Hayashi S, et al. Macrocytic anemia with anisocytosis due to alcohol abuse and vitamin B6 deficiency. Rinsho Ketsueki 1998;39:1127–30 [in Japanese].

7. Hirschmann JV, Raugi GJ. Adult scurvy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;41:895–906 [review].

8. Summerfield AL, Steinberg FU, Gonzalez JG. Morphologic findings in bone marrow precursor cells in zinc-induced copper deficiency anemia. Am J Clin Pathol 1992;97:665–8.

9. Freycon F, Pouyau G. Rare nutritional deficiency anemia: deficiency of copper and vitamin E. Sem Hop 1983;59:488–93 [review] [in French].

10. Borgna-Pignatti C, Marradi P, Pinelli L, et al. Thiamine-responsive anemia in DIDMOAD syndrome. J Pediatr 1989;114:405–10.

11. Neufeld EJ, Mandel H, Raz T, et al. Localization of the gene for thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome, on the long arm of chromosome 1, by homozygosity mapping. Am J Hum Genet 1997;61:1335–41.

12. Schoenen J, Lenaerts M, Bastings E. High-dose riboflavin as a prophylactic treatment of migraine: results of an open pilot study. Cephalalgia 1994;14:328–9.

13. Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M. Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial. Neurology 1998;50:466–70.

14. Schoenen J, Jacquy, Lenaerts M. High-dose riboflavin as a novel prophylactic antimigraine therapy: results from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Cephalalgia 1997;17:244 [abstract].

15. Maizels M, Blumenfeld A, Burchette R. A combination of riboflavin, magnesium, and feverfew for migraine prophylaxis: a randomized trial. Headache2004;44:885–90.

16. MacLennan SC, Wade FM, Forrest KML, et al. High-dose riboflavin for migraine prophylaxis in children: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Child Neurol 2008;23:1300–4.

17. Jacques PF, Chylack LT Jr. Epidemiologic evidence of a role for the antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids in cataract prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:352S–5S.

18. Knekt P, Heliovaara M, Rissanen A, et al. Serum antioxidant vitamins and risk of cataract. BMJ 1992;305:1392–4.

19. Bhat KS. Nutritional status of thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine in cataract patients. Nutr Rep Internat 1987;36:685–92.

20. Prchal JT, Conrad ME, Skalka HW. Association of presenile cataracts with heterozygosity for galactosaemic states and with riboflavin deficiency. Lancet 1978; 1:12–3.

21. Sperduto RD, Hu TS, Milton RC, et al. The Linxian cataract studies. Arch Ophthalmol 1993;111:1246–53.

22. McNulty H, Dowey LR, Strain JJ, et al. Riboflavin lowers homocysteine in individuals homozygous for the MTHFR 677Cà T polymorphism. Circulation2006;113:74–80.

23. Coimbra CG, Junqueira VB. High doses of riboflavin and the elimination of dietary red meat promote the recovery of some motor functions in Parkinson's disease patients. Braz J Med Biol Res 2003;36:1409–17.

24. Wacker J, Fruhauf J, Schulz M, et al. Riboflavin deficiency and preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 2000;96:38–44.

25. Bhat KS. Nutritional status of thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine in cataract patients. Nutr Rep Int 1987;36:685–92.

26. Prchal JT, Conrad ME, Skalka HW. Association of presenile cataracts with heterozygosity for galactosaemic states and with riboflavin deficiency. Lancet 1978;1:12–3.

27. Varma RN, Mankad VN, Phelps DD, et al. Depressed erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity in sickle cell disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:884–7.

28. Wacker J, Fruhauf J, Schulz M, et al. Riboflavin deficiency and preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 2000;96:38–44.

29. Heap LC, Peters TJ, Wessely S. Vitamin B status in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J R Soc Med 1999;92:183–5.

30. Bell IR, Edman JS, Morrow FD, et al. Brief communication: Vitamin B1, B2, and B6 augmentation of tricyclic antidepressant treatment in geriatric depression with cognitive dysfunction. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:159–63.

31. Fouty B, Frerman F, Reves R. Riboflavin to treat nucleoside analogue-induced lactic acidosis. Lancet 1998;352:291–2 [letter].

32. Bell IR, Edman JS, Morrow FD, et al. Brief communication: Vitamin B1, B2, and B6 augmentation of tricyclic antidepressant treatment in geriatric depression with cognitive dysfunction. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:159–63.

33. Bell IR, Edman JS, Morrow FD, et al. Brief communication: Vitamin B1, B2, and B6 augmentation of tricyclic antidepressant treatment in geriatric depression with cognitive dysfunction. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:159–63.

34. Chouinard G, Young SN, Annable L, Sourkes TL. Tryptophan-nicotinamide, imipramine and their combination in depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1979;59:395–414.

35. Walinder J, Skott A, Carlsson A, et al. Potentiation of the antidepressant action of clomipramine by tryptophan. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:1384–9.

36. Shaw DM, MacSweeney DA, Hewland R, Johnson AL. Tricyclic antidepressants and tryptophan in unipolar depression. Psychol Med 1975;5:276–8.

37. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

38. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

39. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197–8.

40. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

41. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

42. Berg G, Kohlmeier L, Brenner H. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:711–5.

43. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197.

44. Fouty B, Frerman F, Reves R. Riboflavin to treat nucleoside analogue-induced lactic acidosis. Lancet 1998;352:291–2 [letter].

45. Bell IR, Edman JS, Morrow FD, et al. Brief communication: Vitamin B1, B2, and B6 augmentation of tricyclic antidepressant treatment in geriatric depression with cognitive dysfunction. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:159–63.

46. Pinto J, Raiczyk GB, Huang YP, Rivlin RS. New approaches to the possible prevention of side effects of chemotherapy by nutrition. Cancer 1986;58:1911–4.

47. Pinto J, Raiczyk GB, Huang YP, Rivlin RS. New approaches to the possible prevention of side effects of chemotherapy by nutrition. Cancer 1986;58:1911-14.

48. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

49. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

50. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197–8.

51. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

52. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

53. Berg G, Kohlmeier L, Brenner H. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:711–5.

54. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197.

55. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

56. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

57. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197–8.

58. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

59. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

60. Berg G, Kohlmeier L, Brenner H. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:711–5.

61. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197.

62. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

63. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

64. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197–8.

65. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

66. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

67. Berg G, Kohlmeier L, Brenner H. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:711–5.

68. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197.

69. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

70. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

71. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197–8.

72. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

73. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

74. Berg G, Kohlmeier L, Brenner H. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:711–5.

75. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197.

76. Bell IR, Edman JS, Morrow FD, et al. Brief communication: Vitamin B1, B2, and B6 augmentation of tricyclic antidepressant treatment in geriatric depression with cognitive dysfunction. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:159–63.

77. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

78. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

79. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197–8.

80. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

81. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

82. Berg G, Kohlmeier L, Brenner H. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:711–5.

83. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197.

84. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

85. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

86. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197–8.

87. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

88. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

89. Berg G, Kohlmeier L, Brenner H. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:711–5.

90. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197.

91. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

92. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

93. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197–8.

94. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

95. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

96. Berg G, Kohlmeier L, Brenner H. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:711–5.

97. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197.

98. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

99. Wynn V. Vitamins and oral contraceptive use. Lancet 1975;1:561–4.

100. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interaction. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 197–8.

101. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 210–1 [review].

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