Decrease (-) Restore Default Increase (+)
Print    Email
Bookmark and Share

Health Information

Health Information

Health Information

Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Cam

Search Health Information    Phosphatidylserine

Phosphatidylserine

Uses

What Are Star Ratings?

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Used for Why
3 Stars
Age-Related Cognitive Decline
300 mg daily of bovine-derived supplement
Learn More

Phosphatidylserine (PS) derived from bovine brain phospholipids has been shown to improve memory, cognition, and mood in the elderly in at least two placebo-controlled trials. In both trials, geriatric patients received 300 mg per day of PS or placebo. In an unblinded trial of ten elderly women with depressive disorders, supplementation with PS produced consistent improvement in depressive symptoms, memory, and behavior after 30 days of treatment.1 A double-blind trial of 494 geriatric patients with cognitive impairment found that 300 mg per day of PS produced significant improvements in behavioral and cognitive parameters after three months and again after six months.2

Most research has been conducted with PS derived from bovine tissue, but what is available commercially is made from soy. The soy- and bovine-derived PS, however, are not structurally identical.3 Doctors and researchers have debated whether the structural differences could be important,4 , 5 but so far only a few trials have studied the effects of soy-based PS.

Preliminary animal research shows that the soy-derived PS does have effects on brain function similar to effects from the bovine source.6 , 7 , 8 An isolated, unpublished double-blind human study used soy-derived PS in an evaluation of memory and mood benefits in nondemented, nondepressed elderly people with impaired memories and accompanying depression .9 In this three-month study, 300 mg per day of PS was not significantly more effective than a placebo. In a double-blind study, soy-derived PS was administered in the amount of 300 or 600 mg per day for 12 weeks to people with age-related memory impairment. Compared with the placebo, soy-derived PS had no effect on memory or on other measures of cognitive function.10 While additional research needs to be done, currently available evidence suggests that soy-derived PS is not an effective treatment for age-related cognitive decline.

2 Stars
Athletic Performance and Enhanced Endurance in Young Active Men
750 mg daily
Learn More
In a double-blind study of active young men, supplementation with 750 of soybean-derived phosphatidylserine per day for 10 days increased the time the men could exercise until exhaustion by approximately 25%.11 Longer studies are needed to determine whether this effect would persist with continued supplementation.
1 Star
Alzheimer’s Disease
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Phosphatidylserine (PS), which is related to lecithin , is a naturally occurring compound present in the brain. Although it is not a cure, 100 mg of PS taken three times per day has been shown to improve mental function, such as the ability to remember names and to recall the location of frequently misplaced objects, in people with Alzheimer’s disease.12 However, subsequent studies have not validated these results. In one double-blind trial, only the most seriously impaired participants received benefits from taking PS; people with moderate Alzheimer’s disease did not experience significant improvements in cognitive function.13 In another double-blind trial, people with Alzheimer’s disease who took 300 mg of PS per day for eight weeks had better improvement in overall well-being than those who took placebo, but there were no significant differences in mental function tests.14 In another double-blind trial, 200 mg of PS taken twice daily produced short-term improvements in mental function (after six to eight weeks), but these effects faded toward the end of the six-month study period.15

The PS used in these studies was obtained from bovine brain phospholipids. A plant source of PS is also available. However, the chemical structure of the plant form of PS differs from the bovine form. In a preliminary study, plant-derived PS was no more effective than a placebo at improving the memory of elderly people.16 Soy-derived PS was also ineffective in a double-blind study of elderly people with age-related cognitive decline .17

1 Star
Depression
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Phosphatidylserine (PS), a natural substance derived from the amino acid serine, affects the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain related to mood. In a preliminary trial, elderly women suffering from depression who were given 300 mg of PS per day for 30 days experienced, on average, a 70% reduction in the severity of their depression.18 Most research has been conducted with PS derived from bovine (cow) brain tissue. Due to concerns about the possibility of humans contracting infectious diseases (such as Creutzfeld-Jakob or “mad cow” disease), bovine PS is not available in the United States. The soy- and bovine-derived PS, are not structurally identical, and there is evidence that soy-derived PS may not have the same beneficial effects as bovine PS.19

1 Star
Parkinson’s Disease
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

People with Parkinson’s disease treated with L-dopa have been reported to have reduced levels of the neurotransmitter phosphatidylserine .20 In one trial, supplementing with phosphatidylserine (100 mg three times daily) improved the mood and mental function in patients with Parkinson’s disease, but exerted no beneficial effects on muscle control.21 The phosphatidylserine used in this trial was obtained from cow brain. That product is not available in the United States, because of concern that an extract of cow brain could cause Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, the human variant of “mad cow” disease. The phosphatidylserine sold in the United States is manufactured from plant sources and cow-brain phosphatidylserine.22

How It Works

How to Use It

Positive effects on mental function have been achieved using 200–500 mg per day of bovine PS; most studies used 300 mg per day. Preliminary animal research shows that the soy-derived PS does have effects on brain function similar to effects from the bovine source. 23 , 24 , 25

Where to Find It

PS is found in only trace amounts in a typical diet. Very small amounts are present in lecithin . The body manufactures PS from phospholipid building blocks. PS research has used material derived from a bovine source. Currently, PS that is commercially available is derived from soy.

Possible Deficiencies

PS is not an essential nutrient, and therefore dietary deficiencies do not occur. Adults age 50 and older, especially those with age-related cognitive decline , may not synthesize enough PS, and appear most likely to benefit from supplemental PS.

Interactions

Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

At the time of writing, there were no well-known supplement or food interactions with this supplement.

Interactions with Medicines

As of the last update, we found no reported interactions between this supplement and medicines. It is possible that unknown interactions exist. If you take medication, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a new supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.
The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

Side Effects

Side Effects

At the time of writing, there were no well-known side effects caused by this supplement.

References

1. Maggioni M, Picotti GB, Bondiolotti GP, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1990;81(3):265–70.

2. Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano) 1993;5(2):123–33.

3. Sakai M, Yamatoya H, Kudo S. Pharmacological effects of phosphatidylserine enzymatically synthesized from soybean lecithin on brain functions in rodents. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1996;42:47–54.

4. Kidd PM. Don’t believe everything you read. . .a sequel. Point. Townsend Letter for Doctors Patients 1997;July:122–4 [editorial].

5. Gaby AR. Don’t believe everything you read. CounterPoint. Townsend Letter for Doctors Patients 1997;July:125–6 [editorial].

6. Furushiro M, Suzuki S, Shishido Y, et al. Effects of oral administration of soybean lecithin transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine on impaired learning of passive avoidance in mice. Jpn J Pharmacol 1997;75:447–50.

7. Sakai M, Yamatoya H, Kudo S. Pharmacological effects of phosphatidylserine enzymatically synthesized from soybean lecithin on brain functions in rodents. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1996;42:47–54.

8. Blokland A, Honig W, Brouns F, et al. Cognition-enhancing properties of subchronic phosphatidylserine (PS) treatment in middle-aged rats: comparison of bovine cortex PS with egg PS and soybean PS. Nutrition 1999;15:778–83.

9. Gindin J, Novikov M, Kedar D, et al. The effect of plant phosphatidylserine on age-associated memory impairment and mood in the functioning elderly. Rehovot, Israel: Geriatric Institute for Education and Research, and Department of Geriatrics, Kaplan Hospital, 1995.

10. Jorissen BL, Brouns F, Van Boxtel MPJ, et al. The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment. Nutr Neurosci 2001;4:121–34.

11. Kingsley MI, Miller M, Kilduff LP, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006;38:64­–71.

12. Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacol Bull 1992;28:61–6.

13. Amaducci L. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol Bull 1988;24:130–4.

14. Engel RR, Satzger W, Gunther W, et al. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1992;2:149–55.

15. Heiss WD, Kessler J, Mielke R, et al. Long-term effects of phosphatidylserine, pyritinol, and cognitive training in Alzheimer’s disease. A neuropsychological, EEG, and PET investigation. Dementia 1994;5:88–98.

16. Gindin J, Novickov M, Kedar D, et al. The effect of plant phosphatidylserine on age-associated memory impairment and mood in the functioning elderly. Rehovot, Israel: Geriatric Institute for Education and Research, and Department of Geriatrics, Kaplan Hospital, 1995.

17. Jorissen BL, Brouns F, Van Boxtel MPJ, et al. The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment. Nutr Neurosci 2001;4:121–34.

18. Maggioni M, Picotti GB, Bondiolotti GP, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1990;81:265–70.

19. Jorissen BL, Brouns F, Van Boxtel MPJ, et al. The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment. Nutr Neurosci 2001;4:121–34.

20. Riekkinen P, Rinne UK, Pelliniemi TT, Sonninen V. Interaction between dopamine and phospholipids. Studies of the substantia nigra in Parkinson disease patients. Arch Neurol 1975;32:25–7.

21. Funfgeld EW, Baggen M, Nedwidek P, et al. Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer’s type (SDAT). Prog Clin Biol Res 1989;317:1235–46.

22. Gaby AR. Don’t believe everything you read. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients 1997;July:125–6.

23. Furushiro M, Suzuki S, Shishido Y, et al. Effects of oral administration of soybean lecithin transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine on impaired learning of passive avoidance in mice. Jpn J Pharmacol 1997;75:447–50.

24. Sakai M, Yamatoya H, Kudo S. Pharmacological effects of phosphatidylserine enzymatically synthesized from soybean lecithin on brain functions in rodents. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1996;42:47–54.

25. Blokland A, Honig W, Brouns F, et al. Cognition-enhancing properties of subchronic phosphatidylserine (PS) treatment in middle-aged rats: comparison of bovine cortex PS with egg PS and soybean PS. Nutrition 1999;15:778–83.

This information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise, Incorporated disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information. Your use of this information means that you agree to the Terms of Use. How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.

Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.

© 2014 St. Mary's Health System   |  3700 Washington Avenue  |  Evansville, IN 47750  |  (812) 485-4000