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Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Cam

Search Health Information    DHEA

DHEA

Uses

What Are Star Ratings?

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Used for Why
3 Stars
Addison’s Disease
Refer to label instructions
Learn More
Because a large proportion of the DHEA in the body is produced by the adrenal glands, people with Addison's disease often have subnormal DHEA levels. Several double-blind trials have shown that supplementing with DHEA improves energy levels, mood, well-being, and sexual function in people with Addison's disease.1 , 2 , 3However, not all studies have demonstrated a beneficial effect.4
2 Stars
Athletic Performance and Improved Strength in Older Men
100 mg daily
Learn More
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that is used by the body to make the male sex hormone testosterone. In one double-blind trial, 100 mg per day of DHEA was effective for improving strength in older men,5 but 50 mg per day was ineffective in a similar study of elderly men and women.6 DHEA has not been effective for women or younger men in other studies.7 , 8
2 Stars
Crohn’s Disease
Take under medical supervision: 200 mg daily
Learn More

In a preliminary trial, six of seven people with Crohn’s disease went into remission after taking 200 mg per day of DHEA for eight weeks.9 This large amount of DHEA has the potential to cause adverse side effects and should only be used under the supervision of a doctor.

2 Stars
Depression
Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
Learn More

Some studies have reported lower DHEA levels in groups of depressed patients.10 However, this finding has not been consistent, and in one trial, severely depressed people were reported to show increases in blood levels of DHEA.11

Despite confusion regarding which depressed people might be DHEA-deficient, most double-blind trials lasting at least six weeks have reported some success in treating people with depression. After six months using 50 mg DHEA per day, “a remarkable increase in perceived physical and psychological well-being” was reported in both men and women in one double-blind trial.12 After only six weeks, taking DHEA in levels up to 90 mg per day led to at least a 50% reduction in depression in five of 11 patients in another double-blind trial.13

Other researchers have reported dramatic reductions in depression at extremely high amounts of DHEA (90–450 mg per day) given for six weeks to adults who first became depressed after age 40 (in men) or at the time of menopause (in women) in a double-blind trial.14 Other double-blind research has shown that limiting supplementation to only two weeks is inadequate in treating people with depression.15 Despite the somewhat dramatic results reported in clinical trials lasting at least six weeks, some experts claim that in clinical practice, DHEA appears to be effective for only a minority of depressed people.16 Moreover, due to fears of potential side effects, most healthcare professionals remain concerned about the use of DHEA. Depressed people considering taking DHEA should consult a doctor well versed in the use of DHEA.

2 Stars
Erectile Dysfunction
Take under medical supervision: 50 mg daily
Learn More

Low blood levels of the hormone DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) have been reported in some men with ED. In one double-blind trial, 40 men with low DHEA levels and ED were given 50 mg DHEA per day for six months.17 Significant improvement in both erectile function and interest in sex occurred in the men assigned to take DHEA, but not in those assigned to take placebo. No significant change occurred in testosterone levels or in factors that could affect the prostate gland. Experts have concerns about the safe use of DHEA, particularly because long-term safety data do not exist.

2 Stars
HIV and AIDS Support
200 to 500 mg daily
Learn More

A deficient level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in the blood is associated with poor outcomes in people with HIV.18 Large amounts of supplemental DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) may alleviate fatigue and depression in HIV-positive men and women. In a preliminary trial, men and women with HIV infection took 200–500 mg of DHEA per day for eight weeks.19 All participants initially had both low mood and low energy. After eight weeks of DHEA supplementation, 72% of the participants reported their mood to be “much improved” or “very much improved,” and 81% reported having significant improvements in energy level. DHEA supplementation had no effect on CD4 cell (helper T-cell) counts or testosterone levels.

2 Stars
Lupus
Take under medical supervision: 50 to 200 mg daily
Learn More

Low blood levels of the hormone DHEA and the related compound DHEA-sulfate have been associated with more severe symptoms in people with SLE.20 Preliminary trials have suggested that 50 to 200 mg per day DHEA improved symptoms in people with SLE.21 , 22 One double-blind trial of women with mild to moderate SLE found that 200 mg of DHEA per day improved symptoms and allowed a greater decrease in prednisone use,23 but a similar trial in women with severe SLE found only insignificant benefits.24

Experts have concerns about the use of DHEA , particularly because there are no long-term safety data. Side effects at high intakes (50 to 200 mg per day) in one 12-month trial included acne (in over 50% of people), increased facial hair (18%), and increased perspiration (8%). Less common problems reported with DHEA supplementation were breast tenderness, weight gain, mood alteration, headache, oily skin, and menstrual irregularity.25

High amounts of DHEA have caused cancer in animals.26 , 27 Although anticancer effects of DHEA have also been reported,28 they involve trials using animals that do not process DHEA the way humans do, so these positive effects may have no relevance for people. Links have begun to appear between higher DHEA levels and risks of prostate cancer in humans.29 At least one person with prostate cancer has been reported to have had a worsening of his cancer despite feeling better while taking very high amounts (up to 700 mg per day) of DHEA.30 While younger women with breast cancer may have low levels of DHEA, postmenopausal women with breast cancer appear to have high levels of DHEA, which has researchers concerned.31 These cancer concerns make sense because DHEA is a precursor to testosterone (linked to prostate cancer) and estrogen (linked to breast cancer). Until more is known, it would be prudent for people with breast or prostate cancer or a family history of these conditions to avoid supplementing with DHEA. Preliminary evidence has also linked higher DHEA levels to ovarian cancer in women.32

Some doctors recommend that people taking DHEA have liver enzymes measured routinely. Anecdotes of DHEA supplementation (of at least 25 mg per day) leading to heart arrhythmias have appeared.33 At only 25 mg per day, DHEA has lowered HDL cholesterol while increasing insulin-like growth factor (IGF).34 Decreasing HDL could increase the risk of heart disease . Increasing IGF might increase the risk of breast cancer.

2 Stars
Osteoporosis
Take under medical supervision: 50 mg per day
Learn More
In a preliminary trial, bone mineral density increased among healthy elderly women and men who were given 50 mg per day of DHEA as a supplement.35 Similar results were found in two one-year double-blind trials that used 50 mg of DHEA per day.36 , 37 , 38 It is not known if supplementation would have the same effect in people with established osteoporosis. DHEA is a steroid hormone, and should be used only under the supervision of a doctor.
2 Stars
Ulcerative Colitis
Take under medical supervision: 200 mg daily
Learn More

In a preliminary trial, 6 of 13 people with ulcerative colitis went into remission after taking 200 mg per day of DHEA for eight weeks.39 This large amount of DHEA has the potential to cause adverse side effects and should only be used under the supervision of a doctor.

1 Star
Alzheimer’s Disease
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Most,40 , 41 , 42 , 43 but not all,44 , 45 studies have found that people with Alzheimer’s disease have lower blood DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) levels than do people without the condition. Emerging evidence suggests a possible benefit of DHEA supplementation in people with Alzheimer’s disease. In one double-blind trial, participants who took 50 mg twice daily for six months had significantly better mental performance at the three-month mark than those taking placebo. At six months, statistically significant differences between the two groups were not seen, but results still favored DHEA.46 In another clinical trial, massive amounts of DHEA (1,600 mg per day for four weeks) failed to improve mental function or mood in elderly people with or without Alzheimer’s disease.47 It is likely that the amount of DHEA used in this trial was far in excess of an appropriate amount, illustrating that more is not always better.

1 Star
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) is a hormone now available as a supplement. In one report, DHEA levels were found to be low in people with CFS.48 Another research group reported that, while DHEA levels were normal in a group of CFS patients, the ability of these people to increase their DHEA level in response to hormonal stimulation was impaired.49 Whether supplementation with DHEA might help CFS patients remains unknown due to the lack of controlled research. DHEA should not be used without the supervision of a healthcare professional.

1 Star
Immune Function
Refer to label instructions
Learn More
The hormone DHEA affects immunity. In a controlled trial, a group of elderly men with low DHEA levels who were given a high level of DHEA (50 mg per day) for 20 weeks, experienced a significant activation of immune function.50 Postmenopausal women have also shown increased immune functioning in just three weeks when given DHEA in double-blind research.51
1 Star
Menopause
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Aging in women is characterized by a progressive decline in blood DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and DHEA-sulfate (DHEAS) levels. These levels can be restored with DHEA supplementation. This process also improves the response of some brain chemicals, called endorphins, to certain drugs.52 These endorphins are involved in sensations of pleasure and pain ; improving their response may explain why DHEA has an effect on mood symptoms associated with menopause. In one double-blind trial, however, menopausal women who took 50 mg of DHEA per day for three months had no improvement in symptoms compared with women taking placebo.53 Further study is needed to validate a role for DHEA in the management of menopausal symptoms.

1 Star
Multi-Infarct Dementia
Refer to label instructions
Learn More
People with deterioration of mental functions resulting from multiple small strokes (multi-infarct dementia) may have lower than normal DHEAS (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) levels, according to a preliminary trial.54 In this trial, intravenous injection of 200 mg per day of DHEAS for four weeks increased DHEAS levels and improved some aspects of mental function and performance of daily activities.
1 Star
Obesity
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

One double-blind trial found 100 mg per day of DHEA was effective for decreasing body fat in older men,55 and another double-blind trial found 1,600 mg per day decreased body fat and increased muscle mass in younger men,56. However, DHEA has not been effective for improving body composition in women or in other studies of men.57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64

How It Works

How to Use It

Most people do not need to supplement DHEA. The question of who should take this hormone remains controversial. Some experts believe that daily intakes of 5–15 mg of DHEA for women and 10–30 mg for men are appropriate amounts for people with deficient blood levels of DHEA or DHEAS.65 While a few researchers suggest supplementation with as much as 50 mg per day in postmenopausal women,66 others consider this level excessive.67 People should consult a doctor to have DHEA levels monitored before and during supplementation. Healthy people with normal blood levels of DHEA or DHEAS should not take this hormone until more is known about its effects. However, some doctors recommend DHEA supplementation for selected people with depression , autoimmune diseases, or other problems, even if their blood levels are normal.

People with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been shown to improve after taking 100–200 mg per day of DHEA. Such large amounts should never be taken without medical supervision.

Discrepancies between label claims and actual DHEA content of DHEA supplements have been reported.68 Regrettably, the authors of this report failed to identify which brands were properly labeled and which were not.

Where to Find It

DHEA is produced by the adrenal glands. A synthetic form of this hormone is also available as a supplement in tablet, capsule, liquid, and sublingual form. Some products claim to contain “natural” DHEA precursors from wild yam . However, the body cannot convert these substances into DHEA69 (although a series of reactions in a laboratory can make the conversion).

Possible Deficiencies

Meaningful levels of DHEA do not appear in food, and therefore dietary deficiency does not exist. Some people, however, may not synthesize enough DHEA. DHEA levels peak in early adulthood and then start a lifelong descent. By the age of 60, DHEA levels are only about 5–15% of what they were at their peak at younger ages.70 Whether the lower level associated with age represents a deficiency or a normal part of aging that should not be tampered with remains unknown.

People with true adrenal insufficiency (i.e., Addison’s Disease; not the hypothetical adrenal “fatigue” or “burnout” that is sometimes incorrectly referred to as “insufficiency”) have below normal levels of DHEA. When women with adrenal insufficiency were treated with 50 mg of DHEA every morning for three or four months, their DHEA and DHEAS levels returned to normal, with a simultaneous improvement in well-being and sexuality.71 , 72

Some studies have reported lower DHEA levels in groups of depressed patients.73 , 74 However, in one trial, severely depressed people were reported to show increases in blood levels of DHEA.75 Despite these contradictory findings, a few clinical trials suggest that at least some people who are depressed may benefit from DHEA supplementation. (See “What does it do?” above for more information about use of DHEA supplements in the treatment of depression.)

People with multi-infarct dementia (deterioration of mental functions resulting from multiple small strokes) may have lower than normal DHEAS levels, according to a preliminary trial.76 In this trial, intravenous injection of 200 mg per day of DHEAS for four weeks increased DHEAS levels and improved some aspects of mental function and performance of daily activities.

People infected with HIV 77 and those with insulin-dependent diabetes ,78 congestive heart failure,79 multiple sclerosis , 80 asthma ,81 , 82 chronic fatigue syndrome ,83 , 84 rheumatoid arthritis ,85 , 86 , 87 osteoporosis , and a host of other conditions have been reported to have low levels of DHEA in most,88 but not all, studies.89 , 90 In most cases, the meaning of this apparent deficiency is not well understood.

Men under 60 years of age with erectile dysfunction have been found to have lower DHEAS levels than men without the condition.91 (See “What does it do?” above for more information about use of DHEA supplements in the treatment of men with erectile dysfunction.)

Most,92 , 93 , 94 , 95 but not all, 96 , 97 studies have found that people with Alzheimer’s disease have lower blood DHEAS levels than do people without the condition.

Interactions

Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

At the time of writing, there were no well-known supplement or food interactions with this supplement.

Interactions with Medicines

Certain medicines interact with this supplement.

Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

Replenish Depleted Nutrients

  • Beclomethasone

    A group of women with asthma who had been taking inhaled beclomethasone were shown to have low levels of DHEA compared to women with asthma who were not taking beclomethasone.98 The authors speculated that this effect may partially explain how corticosteroids can cause osteoporosis . However, more research is needed to confirm these suspicions and to evaluate whether supplemental DHEA is beneficial to patients taking inhaled corticosteroids.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Budesonide

    A group of women with asthma who had been taking inhaled beclomethasone were shown to have low levels of DHEA compared to women with asthma who were not taking beclomethasone.99 The authors speculated that this effect may partially explain how corticosteroids can cause osteoporosis . However, more research is needed to confirm these suspicions and to evaluate whether supplemental DHEA is beneficial to patients taking inhaled corticosteroids.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Flunisolide

    A group of women with asthma who had been taking inhaled beclomethasone were shown to have low levels of DHEA compared to women with asthma who were not taking beclomethasone.101 The authors speculated that this effect may partially explain how corticosteroids can cause osteoporosis . However, more research is needed to confirm these suspicions and to evaluate whether supplemental DHEA is beneficial to patients taking inhaled corticosteroids.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Fluticasone

    A group of women with asthma who had been taking inhaled beclomethasone were shown to have low levels of DHEA compared to women with asthma who were not taking beclomethasone.103 The authors speculated that this effect may partially explain how corticosteroids can cause osteoporosis . However, more research is needed to confirm these suspicions and to evaluate whether supplemental DHEA is beneficial to patients taking inhaled corticosteroids.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Insulin

    Insulin has been shown to decrease the levels of DHEA and DHEA-sulfate in the blood.104 More research is needed to determine the significance of this finding.

  • Levalbuterol

    A group of women with asthma who had been taking inhaled beclomethasone were shown to have low levels of DHEA compared to women with asthma who were not taking beclomethasone.105 The authors speculated that this effect may partially explain how corticosteroids can cause osteoporosis . However, more research is needed to confirm these suspicions and to evaluate whether supplemental DHEA is beneficial to patients taking inhaled corticosteroids.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

Reduce Side Effects

  • none

Support Medicine

  • Clonidine

    DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) supplementation (50 mg per day) has been shown to restore the response of beta-endorphin (a brain chemical involved in pain and pleasure sensations) to clonidine.100

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Fluoxetine

    DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) supplementation (50 mg per day) has been shown to restore the response of beta-endorphin, a brain chemical involved in pain and pleasure sensations, to fluoxetine.102 Further research is needed to determine if this drug combination is safe for long-term use.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

Reduces Effectiveness

  • Diltiazem

    Diltiazem has been shown to raise blood levels of DHEA and DHEA-sulfate in insulin-resistant, obese men with high blood pressure.106

Potential Negative Interaction

  • none

Explanation Required

  • Amlodipine

    Amlodipine has been shown to raise blood levels of DHEA-sulfate in insulin-resistant, obese men with high blood pressure.107

  • Amlodipine-Benazepril

    Amlodipine has been shown to raise blood levels of DHEA-sulfate in insulin-resistant, obese men with high blood pressure.108

  • Metformin

    Metformin has been reported to increase blood levels of DHEA-sulfate in at least two studies.109 , 110

  • Methyltestosterone

    DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) supplementation has been shown to increase blood levels of testosterone,111 , 112 , 113 as does methyltestosterone. No studies have investigated the possible additive effects of taking DHEA and methyltestosterone, but either increased drug effectiveness or more severe side effects are possible. Until more is known, these agents should be combined only under the supervision of a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

Side Effects

Side Effects

Experts have concerns about the use of DHEA, particularly because long-term safety data do not exist.

Side effects at high intakes (50–200 mg per day) appear to be acne (in over 50% of people), increased facial hair (18%), and increased perspiration (8%). In a preliminary trial, DHEA was also reported to induce less common side effects, including breast tenderness, weight gain, mood alteration, headache, oily skin, and menstrual irregularity in some people.114 Since this trial was not controlled, some of these less common “side effects” might have occurred even with a placebo. A case of mania has been reported in an older man who took 200–300 mg of DHEA per day for six months.115 However, in that case report, other causes of mania could not be ruled out.

Significant increases in testosterone levels in both men and women have been reported in some trials.116 , 117 Other reports have found this change in women but not in men.118 An increase in testosterone might increase the risk of several cancers, and high amounts of DHEA have caused cancer in animals.119 , 120 Moreover, a possible link between higher DHEA levels and risks of prostate cancer in humans has been reported.121 At least one person with prostate cancer has been reported to have had a worsening of his cancer, despite feeling better, while taking very high amounts (up to 700 mg per day) of DHEA.122

While younger women with breast cancer may have low levels of DHEA, postmenopausal women with breast cancer appear to have high levels of DHEA, which has researchers concerned.123 , 124 Most,125 , 126 , 127 , 128 , 129 but not all, studies130 , 131 , 132 have found that as DHEA blood levels increase, so does the risk of breast cancer.

Supplementation with high levels of DHEA (100 mg per day) has adversely affected other indicators of cancer risk in both women and men.133 , 134 Elevated DHEA levels have been reported to be associated with both higher,135 and lower risk for ovarian cancer.136 The reason for this discrepancy is unknown.

The lack of knowledge about how DHEA supplementation might affect cancer risks provides a reason for caution. Until more is known, people with breast or prostate cancer or a family history of these conditions should avoid supplementing with DHEA.

Although anticancer effects of DHEA have also been reported,137 they involve trials using animals that do not process DHEA the way humans do. Therefore, these positive effects may have no relevance for people.

Some doctors recommend that people taking DHEA have liver enzymes measured routinely. Anecdotes of DHEA supplementation (of at least 25 mg per day) leading to heart arrhythmias have appeared.138

The relationship between DHEA, blood pressure, and heart disease is poorly understood. Increased blood levels of DHEAS have been associated with increased blood pressure139 and other cardiovascular risk factors in some,140 but not all,141 studies. One study found that people with hypertension had significantly decreased blood levels of DHEA.142 Until clinical trials clear up these inconsistencies and confirm its safety, people with hypertension should avoid using DHEA, except under the close supervision of a doctor.

At only 25 mg per day, DHEA has lowered HDL cholesterol while increasing insulin-like growth factor (IGF).143 Decreasing HDL could increase the risk of heart disease. Increasing IGF might increase the risk of breast cancer.

References

1. Hunt PJ, Gurnell EM, Huppert FA, et al. Improvement in mood and fatigue after dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in Addison's disease in a randomized, double blind trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:4650–6.

2. Gurnell EM, Hunt PJ, Curran SE, et al. Long-term DHEA replacement in primary adrenal insufficiency: a randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:400–9.

3. Arlt W, Callies F, van Vlijmen JC, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in women with adrenal insufficiency. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1013–20.

4. Christiansen JJ, Bruun JM, Christiansen JS, et al. Long-term DHEA substitution in female adrenocortical failure, body composition, muscle function, and bone metabolism: a randomized trial. Eur J Endocrinol 2011;165:293–300.

5. Morales AJ, Haubrich RH, Hwang JY, et al. The effect of six months treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on circulating sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998;49:421–32.

6. Percheron G, Hogrel JY, Denot-Ledunois S, et al. Effect of 1-year oral administration of dehydroepi sterone to 60- to 80-year-old individuals on muscle function and cross-sectional area: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:720–7.

7. Wallace MB, Lim J, Cutler A, Bucci L. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone vs androstenedione supplementation in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1788–92.

8. Brown GA, Vukovich MD, Sharp RL. Effect of oral DHEA on serum testosterone and adaptations to resistance training in young men. J Appl Physiol 1999;87:2274–83.

9. Andus T, Klebl F, Rogler G, et al. Patients with refractory Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis respond to dehydroepiandrosterone: a pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:409–14.

10. Barrett-Connor E, von Mühlen D, Laughlin GA, Kripke A. Endogenous levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, but not other sex hormones, are associated with depressed mood in older women: The Rancho Bernardo Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:685–91.

11. Heuser I, Deuschle M, Luppa P, et al. Increased diurnal plasma concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone in depressed patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:3130–3.

12. Morales AJ, Nolan JJ, Nelson JC, Yen SSC. Effects of replacement dose of DHEA in men and women of advancing age. J Clin Endorcrionol Metab 1994;78:1360.

13. Wolkowitz OM, Reus VI, Keebler A, et al. Double-blind treatment of major depression with dehydroepiandrosterone. Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:646–9.

14. Bloch M, Schmidt PJ, Danaceau MA, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone treatment of midlife dysthymia. Biol Psychiatry 1999;45:1533–41.

15. Wolf OT, Neumann O, Hellhammer DH, et al. Effects of a two-week physiological dehydroepiandrosterone substitution on cognitive performance and well-being in healthy elderly women and men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:2263–7.

16. Gaby AR. Research review. Nutr Healing 1997;8.

17. Reiter WJ, Pycha A, Schatzl G, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: a prospective, double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled study. Urology 1999;53:590–5.

18. Ferrando SJ, Rabkin JG, Poretsky L. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and testosterone: relation to HIV illness stage and progression over one year. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1999;22:146–54.

19. Rabkin JG, Ferrando SJ, Wagner GJ, Rabkin R. DHEA treatment for HIV + patients: effects on mood, androgenic and anabolic parameters. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2000;25:53–68.

20. Barry NN, McGuire JL, van Vollenhoven RF. Dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship between dosage, serum levels, and clinical response. J Rheumatol 1998;25:2352–6.

21. Van Vollenhoven RF, Morabito LM, Engleman EG, McGuire JL. Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with dehyroepiandrosterone: 50 patients treated up to 12 months. J Rheumatol 1998;25:285–9.

22. Van Vollenhoven RF, Engleman EG, McGuire JL. An open study of dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1994;37:1305–10.

23. Van Vollenhoven RF, Engleman EG, McGuire JL. Dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus. Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:1826–31.

24. Van Vollenhoven RF, Park JL, Genovese MC, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of dehydroepiandrosterone in severe systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 1999;8:181–7.

25. van Hollenhoven RF, Morabito LM, Engleman EG, McGuire JL. Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with dehydroepiandrosterone: 50 patients treated up to 12 months. J Rheumatol 1998;25:285–9.

26. Orner GA, Mathews C, Hendricks JD, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone is a complete hepatocarcinogen and potent tumor promoter in the absence of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout. Carcinogenesis 1995;16:2893–8.

27. Metzger C, Mayer D, Hoffmann H, et al. Sequential appearance and ultrastructure of amphophilic cell foci, adenomas, and carcinomas in the liver of male and female rats treated with dehydroepiandrosterone. Taxicol Pathol 1995;23:591–605.

28. Schwartz AG. Inhibition of spontaneous breast cancer formation in female C3H (A vy/a) mice by long-term treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone. Cancer Res 1979;39:1129–32.

29. McNeil C. Potential drug DHEA hits snags on way to clinic. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997;89:681–3.

30. Jones JA, Nguyen A, Strab M, et al. Use of DHEA in a patient with advanced prostate cancer: a case report and review. Urology 1997;50:784–8.

31. Zumoff B, Levin J, Rosenfeld RS, et al. Abnormal 24-hr mean plasma concentrations of dehydroisoandrosterone and dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate in women with primary operable breast cancer. Cancer Res 1981;41:3360–3.

32. Skolnick AA. Scientific verdict still out on DHEA. JAMA 1996;276:1365–7 [review].

33. Sahelian R. New supplements and unknown, long-term consequences. Am J Natural Med 1997;4:8 [editorial].

34. Casson PR, Santoro N, Elkind-Hirsch K, et al. Postmenopausal dehydroepiandrosterone administration increases free insulin-like growth factor-I and decreases high-density lipoprotein: a six-month trial. Fertil Steril 1998;70:107–10.

35. Villareal DT, Holloszy JO, Kohrt WM. Effects of DHEA replacement on bone mineral density and body composition in elderly women and men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000;53:561–8.

36. Jankowski CM, Gozansky WS, Schwartz RS, et al. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in older adults: a randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:2986–93.

37. Weiss EP, Shah K, Fontana L, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy in older adults: 1- and 2-y effects on bone. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1459–67.

38. Von Muhlen D, Laughlin GA, Kritz-Silverstein D, et al. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on bone mineral density, bone markers, and body composition in older adults: the DAWN trial. Osteoporos Int 2008;19:699–707.

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