Enjoy a happy, healthy pregnancy. A healthy baby begins with a healthy mom, so start as soon as possible to prepare your body and mind for motherhood. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful.
Starting before you become pregnant, if possible, take a multivitamin supplement high in folic acid, iron, and calcium to prevent complications due to vitamin or mineral deficiencies
A well-balanced and varied diet that includes fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and fish will provide the nutrients you and your baby need
Avoid harmful habits
Give up alcohol, caffeine, smoking, and recreational drugs to reduce the risk of birth defects and pregnancy complications
Gain the right amount of weight
Follow the advice of your healthcare provider to prevent problems associated with inadequate or excessive weight gain
About This Condition
Pregnancy, the period during which a woman’s fertilized egg (embryo) gestates and becomes a fetus,
lasts an average of 40 weeks from the date of the last menstrual period to delivery of the infant.
In the first trimester (13 weeks), many pregnant women experience nausea. Usually these women report that
they feel best during the second trimester. During the third (final) trimester, the increasing size of the
fetus begins to place mechanical strains on the expectant mother, often causing back pain, leg swelling, and other health problems.
Healthy Lifestyle Tips
A woman can reduce her risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery by avoiding harmful substances, such as alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, recreational drugs, and some prescription or over-the-counter drugs.
Even minimal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can increase the risk of hyperactivity, short attention span, and emotional problems in the child.1 Pregnant women should, therefore, avoid alcohol completely.
Cigarette smoking during pregnancy causes lower birth weights and smaller-sized newborns. The rate of miscarriage in smokers is twice as high as that in nonsmokers,2 and babies born to mothers who smoke have more than twice the risk of dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).3
Weight Gain in Pregnancy
No single maternal weight gain target meets the needs of all women. The amount of weight a woman optimally gains varies with her height, age, plans to breast feed, and whether she is delivering twins. However, a few basic guidelines are generally accepted:4 Women who enter pregnancy at more than 120% of standard weight still have an obligatory weight gain of 15–25 pounds at a rate of about 0.7 pounds per week. Women who are at ideal body weight and are not going to nurse have a target of gaining about 22 pounds overall at a rate of 0.8 pounds per week. Women who enter pregnancy between 90% and 110% of ideal body weight and plan to nurse have a target weight gain of 25–35 pounds overall at a rate of 0.9 pounds per week during the second and third trimesters. Physically immature adolescents and women less than 90% of ideal body weight have a target weight gain of 32 (28–40) pounds at a rate of 1.1 pounds per week. Women who know they are going to have twins have a target weight gain of 40 (35–45) pounds with a weekly rate of 1.4 pounds during the last 20 weeks of pregnancy.
Another way to determine the appropriate weight gain for pregnancy is by using the Body Mass Index (BMI). The BMI is calculated by dividing your body weight (in kilograms) by the square of your height (in meters). (A kilogram is equal to 2.2 pounds; a meter is equal to about 39 inches.) According to the standard set in 1990 by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences,5 a woman with a low BMI (less than 19.8) should gain a total of 12.5–18 kg (27.5–39.7 pounds) during pregnancy; a woman with a normal BMI (19.8–26) should gain a total of 11.5–16 kg (25.4–35.3 pounds) during pregnancy; a woman with a high BMI (greater than 26.0–29.0) should gain a total of 7–11.5 kg (15.4–25.4 pounds) during pregnancy. Adolescents and black women should strive for gains at the upper end of the recommended range. Short women (less than five feet) should strive for gains at the lower end of this range. Obese women (BMI greater than 29) have a separate recommended target weight gain of about 6 kg (13.2 pounds). Published studies suggest that only 30–40% of American women actually have weight gains within the IOM’s recommended ranges.6, 7, 8
Although the IOM’s national recommendations concerning pregnancy weight gain have been widely adopted, they have not been universally accepted.9 The amount of weight gain during pregnancy varies considerably among women with good pregnancy outcomes.10, 11 For that reason, weight gain alone is not likely to be a perfect screening tool for pregnancy complications. Nevertheless, weight gains outside the IOM’s recommended ranges are associated with twice as many poor pregnancy outcomes than are weight gains within the ranges. A systematic review of all studies published between 1990 and 1997 that specifically examined fetal and maternal outcomes showed that weight gain within the IOM’s recommended ranges is associated with the best outcome for both mothers and infants.12
Weight loss programs are not generally recommended during pregnancy. Nevertheless, it should be noted that being overweight while pregnant increases the incidence of various conditions in both the mother and the fetus, such as gestational diabetes and blood pressure problems. The risk is proportional to the amount of excess weight. Overweight women have a higher risk of cesarean deliveries and a higher incidence of anesthetic and post-operative complications in these deliveries. Poor responsiveness in the newborn, large head, and some birth defects are more frequent in infants of obese mothers. Maternal obesity increases the risk of newborn death. The average cost of hospital prenatal and postnatal care is higher for overweight mothers than for normal-weight mothers. Infants of overweight mothers require admission into intensive care units more often than do infants of normal-weight mothers.13
Some women will be concerned that the IOM’s recommended weight gain will result in too much weight gain or more weight retention after the baby is born, but there is no evidence to support this concern. Although there are risks associated with being overweight during pregnancy, dieting during pregnancy can seriously endanger the health of the fetus. A low rate of pregnancy weight gain has been shown, in most studies, to increase the risk of premature delivery.14 There is no evidence that restricting normal weight gain in pregnancy is either safe or beneficial.15
In one preliminary study, acupuncture relieved pain and diminished disability in the low back during pregnancy better than physiotherapy.16
A controlled trial found that acupuncture significantly reduced symptoms in women with hyperemesis gravidarum, a severe form of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy that usually requires hospitalization.17 Treatment consisted of acupuncture at a single point on the forearm three times daily for two consecutive days. Acupressure (in which pressure, rather than needles, is used to stimulate acupuncture points) has also been found in several preliminary trials to be mildly effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.18, 19, 20
The right diet is the key to managing many diseases and to improving general quality of life. For this condition, scientific research has found benefit in the following healthy eating tips.
A well-balanced and varied diet that includes fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and fish will provide the nutrients you and your baby need.
Nearly all pregnant women can benefit from good nutritional habits prior to and during pregnancy. The increased number of birth defects during times of famine attest to the adverse effects of poor nutrition during pregnancy.21 For example, in a dietary survey of pregnant women, higher dietary intake of niacin (a form of vitamin B3) during the first trimester was correlated with higher birth weights, longer length, and larger head circumference (all signs of healthier infants).22
Women who consume a standard Western diet (high in fat and sugar and low in complex carbohydrates) during pregnancy and breast-feeding may not get adequate amounts of essential vitamins and minerals, which can result in health problems for the newborn.23 Pregnant women should choose a well-balanced and varied diet that includes fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and fish. Refined sugars, white flour, fried foods, processed foods, and chemical additives should be avoided. In one study, women who consumed a healthful diet (consisting mainly of fish, low-fat meats and dairy products, oils, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes) had a 90% reduction in the incidence of preterm deliveries, compared with those who consumed their usual diet.24
Cut the caffeine
To reduce your chances of miscarriage, avoid drinking coffee and consuming other caffeine-containing foods and beverages.
Consumption of moderate to large amounts of caffeine while pregnant has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.25, 26, 27, 28 Although some studies suggest that only very large amounts of caffeine increase the risk of miscarriage,29 an analysis of clinical trials found that women who consumed more than 150 mg of caffeine (roughly one to two cups of coffee) per day while pregnant had an increased risk of miscarriage or delivering a baby with a low birth weight.30 The FDA has advised women to avoid drinking coffee and consuming other caffeine-containing foods and beverages during pregnancy.31
Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by some in the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.
For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.
3 StarsReliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
2 StarsContradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
1 StarFor an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.
800 mcg daily, beginning before pregnancy
Supplementing with folic acid protects against the formation of birth defects, such as spina bifida. It also may lead to few infections for mothers and higher birth weight for babies.
Most doctors, many other healthcare professionals, and the March of Dimes recommend that all women of childbearing age supplement with 400 mcg per day of folic acid. Such supplementation could protect against the formation of neural tube defects (such as spina bifida) during the time between conception and when pregnancy is discovered.
The requirement for the B vitamin folic acid doubles during pregnancy, to 800 mcg per day from all sources.32 Deficiencies of folic acid during pregnancy have been linked to low birth weight33 and to an increased incidence of neural tube defects (e.g., spina bifida) in infants. In one study, women who were at high risk of giving birth to babies with neural tube defects were able to lower their risk by 72% by taking folic acid supplements prior to and during pregnancy.34 Several preliminary studies have shown that a deficiency of folate in the blood may increase the risk of stunted growth of the fetus.35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42 This does not prove, however, that folic acid supplementation results in higher birth weights. Although some trials have found that folic acid and iron, when taken together, have improved birth weights,43, 44, 45, 46 other trials have found supplementation with these nutrients to be ineffective.47, 48, 49
The relationship between folate status and the risk of miscarriage is also somewhat unclear. In some studies, women who have had habitual miscarriages were found to have elevated levels of homocysteine (a marker of folate deficiency).50, 51, 52, 53 In a preliminary study, 22 women with recurrent miscarriages who had elevated levels of homocysteine were treated with 15 mg per day of folic acid and 750 mg per day of vitamin B6, prior to and throughout their next pregnancy. This treatment reduced homocysteine levels to normal and was associated with 20 successful pregnancies.54 It is not known whether supplementing with these vitamins would help prevent miscarriages in women with normal homocysteine levels. As the amounts of folic acid and vitamin B6 used in this study were extremely large and potentially toxic, this treatment should be used only with the supervision of a doctor.
In other studies, however, folate levels did not correlate with the incidence of habitual miscarriages.55, 56, 57
Preliminary58 and double-blind59 evidence has shown that women who use a multivitamin-mineral formula containing folic acid beginning three months before becoming pregnant and continuing through the first three months of pregnancy have a significantly lower risk of having babies with neural tube defects (e.g., spina bifida) and other congenital defects.
In addition to achieving significant protection against birth defects, women who take folic acid supplements during pregnancy have been reported to have fewer infections, and to give birth to babies with higher birth weights and better Apgar scores. 60 (An Apgar score is an evaluation of the well-being of a newborn, based on his or her color, crying, muscle tone, and other signs.) However, if a woman waits until after discovering her pregnancy to begin taking folic acid supplements, it will probably be too late to prevent a neural tube defect.
Refer to label instructions
Iodine is an essential nutrient for the development of the fetal thyroid gland which, in turn, is important for brain development.
Iodine is an essential nutrient for the development of the fetal thyroid gland which, in turn, is important for brain development. Even mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy may have an adverse effect on cognitive function of the child.61 In a preliminary study of women in Italy, iodine deficiency severe enough to cause hypothyroidism during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in their children.62 However, excessive iodine intake can also adversely affect the thyroid gland. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should ask their healthcare professional whether they should take a prenatal supplement that contains iodine.
Use a prenatal supplement that includes biotin
Biotin deficiency may occur in as many as 50% of pregnant women. A prenatal multiple vitamin and mineral formula that contains biotin may help prevent a deficiency.
Biotin deficiency may occur in as many as 50% of pregnant women.63 As biotin deficiency in pregnant animals results in birth defects, it seems reasonable to use a prenatal multiple vitamin and mineral formula that contains biotin.
Obtain a total of 1,500 to 2,000 mg daily, including both supplement and food sources
Calcium needs double during pregnancy. Supplementing with calcium may reduce the risk of preeclampsia and pre-term delivery and improve the bone strength of the fetuses.
Calcium needs double during pregnancy.64 Low dietary intake of this mineral is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia, a potentially dangerous (but preventable) condition characterized by high blood pressure and swelling. Supplementation with calcium may reduce the risk of pre-term delivery, which is often associated with preeclampsia. Calcium may reduce the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension,65 though these effects are more likely to occur in women who are calcium deficient.66, 67 Supplementation with up to 2 grams of calcium per day by pregnant women with low dietary calcium intake has been shown to improve the bone strength of the fetuses.68
Pregnant women should consume 1,500 mg of calcium per day from all sources—food plus supplements. Food sources of calcium include dairy products, dark green leafy vegetables, tofu, sardines (canned with edible bones), salmon (canned with edible bones), peas, and beans.
2.7 to 6.1 mg daily of omega-3 fatty acids (EPA plus DHA)
Supplementing with fish oil (providing the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA) significantly reduced recurrence of premature delivery, according to one analysis.
Supplementation with fish oil (providing either 2.7 g or 6.1 g per day of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA) significantly reduced recurrence of premature delivery, according to data culled from six clinical trials involving women with a high risk for such complications.69 Fish oil supplementation did not prevent premature delivery of twin pregnancies, nor did it have any preventive effect against intrauterine growth retardation or pregnancy-induced hypertension. Fish oils should be free of contaminants, such as mercury and organochlorine pesticides. Women who eat substantial amounts of certain types of seafood (e.g., swordfish, tuna) may be consuming contaminants that can increase the risk of brain and nervous system abnormalities in their offspring. Exposure to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was found to be increased in relation to maternal intake of seafood. Higher exposure to these toxic contaminants has been linked to an increased risk of deficits in the developing brains and nervous systems of the children.70
Fish Oil (Prenatal Growth)
Refer to label instructions
The DHA found in fish oil is essential for the development of the visual system in infants.
The DHA found in fish oil is essential for the development of the visual system in infants.71 In one double-blind study, 103 term infants were randomly assigned to receive either formula with no docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or arachidonic acid (ARA) or formula supplemented with DHA and ARA at concentrations similar to those found in human milk, starting when they were six days old. Visual maturation was assessed by measuring sweep visual evoked potential at ages 6, 17, 26, and 52 weeks. At each age, the supplemented group measured better, which led researchers to conclude that long-term supplementation of infant formula with DHA and ARA in amounts typical in human milk may help enhance visual development during the first year of life.
Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
Iron requirements increase during pregnancy, making iron deficiency in pregnancy quite common. Supplementation may help prevent a deficiency.
Iron requirements increase during pregnancy, making iron deficiency in pregnancy quite common.72 Iron supplement use in the United States is estimated at 85% during pregnancy, with most women taking supplements three or more times per week for three months.73 Pregnant women with a documented iron deficiency need doctor-supervised treatment. In one study, 65% of women who were not given extra iron developed iron deficiency during pregnancy, compared with none who received an iron supplement.74 However, there is a clear increase in reported side effects with increasing supplement amounts of iron, especially iron sulfate.75, 76 Supplementation with large amounts of iron has also been shown to reduce blood levels of zinc.77 Although the significance of that finding is not clear, low blood levels of zinc have been associated with an increased risk of complications in both the mother and fetus.78
Iron supplementation was associated in one study with an increased incidence of birth defects,79 possibly as a result of an iron-induced deficiency of zinc. Although additional research needs to be done, the evidence suggests that women who are supplementing with iron during pregnancy should also take a multivitamin-mineral formula that contains adequate amounts of zinc. To be on the safe side, pregnant women should discuss their supplement program with a doctor.
Magnesium (Leg cramps)
100 mg of magnesium three times per day for four weeks
Some, though not all, research suggests that supplementing with magnesium may improve pregnancy-induced leg cramps.
A double-blind trial found that supplementing with 100 mg of magnesium three times per day for four weeks improved pregnancy-induced leg cramps.80 However, another double-blind study found that 360 mg of magnesium per day for two weeks did not relieve pregnancy-induced leg cramps.81
Refer to label instructions
SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine) supplementation has been shown to aid in the resolution of blocked bile flow (cholestasis), an occasional complication of pregnancy.82, 83
SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine) supplementation has been shown to aid in the resolution of blocked bile flow (cholestasis), an occasional complication of pregnancy.84, 85
Vitamin B6 (High Homocysteine)
750 mg daily taken under the supervision of a doctor
Women who habitually miscarry have been found to have high homocysteine levels. Vitamin B6 may reduce these levels and increase the chances of a successful pregnancy.
The relationship between folate status and the risk of miscarriage is also somewhat unclear. In some studies, women who have had habitual miscarriages were found to have elevated levels of homocysteine (a marker of folate deficiency).86, 87, 88, 89 In a preliminary study, 22 women with recurrent miscarriages who had elevated levels of homocysteine were treated with 15 mg per day of folic acid and 750 mg per day of vitamin B6, prior to and throughout their next pregnancy. This treatment reduced homocysteine levels to normal and was associated with 20 successful pregnancies.90 It is not known whether supplementing with these vitamins would help prevent miscarriages in women with normal homocysteine levels. As the amounts of folic acid and vitamin B6 used in this study were extremely large and potentially toxic, this treatment should be used only with the supervision of a doctor.
100 mg daily
Supplementing with vitamin C during pregnancy may reduce the risk of premature rupture of membranes (PROM).
Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) affects 10 to 20% of all pregnancies. It is an important cause of preterm delivery and is associated with increased rates of complications in both the mother and child. In a double-blind study, supplementing with 100 mg of vitamin C per day, beginning in the twentieth week of pregnancy, reduced the incidence of PROM by 74%.91 The women in this study were consuming only about 65 mg of vitamin C per day in their diet, which is less than the RDA of 80 to 85 mg per day for pregnant women.
Use a prenatal supplement that includes zinc
In one study, women who used a zinc-containing nutritional supplement before and after conception had a 36% decreased chance of having a baby with a neural tube defect.
In a preliminary study, pregnant women who used a zinc-containing nutritional supplement in the three months before and after conception had a 36% decreased chance of having a baby with a neural tube defect, and women who had the highest dietary zinc intake (but took no vitamin supplement) had a 30% decreased risk.92
Refer to label instructions
Dandelion is a tonic herb, believed to strengthen or invigorate organ systems. A rich source of vitamins and minerals, it promotes urine and bile flow and helps with the common digestive complaints of pregnancy.
Many tonic herbs, which are believed to strengthen or invigorate organ systems or the entire body, can be taken safely every day during pregnancy. Examples include dandelion leaf and root, red raspberry leaf, and nettle. Dandelion leaf and root are rich sources of vitamins and minerals, including beta-carotene, calcium, potassium, and iron. Dandelion leaf is mildly diuretic (promotes urine flow); it also stimulates bile flow and helps with the common digestive complaints of pregnancy. Dandelion root is traditionally used to strengthen and invigorate the liver.93
Refer to label instructions
Goat’s rue has a history of use in Europe for supporting breast-feeding. Taking goat’s rue tincture may be helpful in increasing milk volume.
Goat’s rue (Galega officinalis) has a history of use in Europe for supporting breast-feeding. Taking 1 teaspoon of goat’s rue tincture per day is considered by some European practitioners to be helpful in increasing milk volume.94 Studies to support the use of goat’s rue as a galactagogue are lacking.
Refer to label instructions
Nettle leaf is rich in calcium and iron and is mildly diuretic. It enriches and increases the flow of breast milk and restores the mother’s energy following childbirth.
Many tonic herbs, which are believed to strengthen or invigorate organ systems or the entire body, can be taken safely every day during pregnancy. Examples include dandelion leaf and root, red raspberry leaf, and nettle. Dandelion leaf and root are rich sources of vitamins and minerals, including beta-carotene, calcium, potassium, and iron. Dandelion leaf is mildly diuretic (promotes urine flow); it also stimulates bile flow and helps with the common digestive complaints of pregnancy. Dandelion root is traditionally used to strengthen and invigorate the liver.95
Nettle leaf is rich in the minerals calcium and iron, is mildly diuretic, and is diuretic. Nettle leaf is rich in the minerals calcium and iron, is and mildly diuretic. Nettle enriches and increases the flow of breast milk and restores the mother’s energy following childbirth.96
30 mg per day
In a controlled study, pregnant women who took Pycnogenol reported some relief of pain in the legs, pelvis, hip, and low back.
In a controlled study, pregnant women who took 30 mg per day of Pycnogenol reported some relief of pain in the legs, pelvis, hip, and low back.97 Double-blind research is needed to confirm these findings.
Refer to label instructions
Rich in vitamins and minerals, red raspberry is traditionally used to strengthen and invigorate the uterus, increase milk flow, and restore the mother’s system after childbirth.
Many tonic herbs, which are believed to strengthen or invigorate organ systems or the entire body, can be taken safely every day during pregnancy. Examples include dandelion leaf and root, red raspberry leaf, and nettle. Dandelion leaf and root are rich sources of vitamins and minerals, including beta-carotene, calcium, potassium, and iron. Dandelion leaf is mildly diuretic (promotes urine flow); it also stimulates bile flow and helps with the common digestive complaints of pregnancy. Dandelion root is traditionally used to strengthen and invigorate the liver.98
Red raspberry leaf is the most frequently mentioned traditional herbal tonic for general support of pregnancy and breast-feeding. Rich in vitamins and minerals (especially iron), it is traditionally used to strengthen and invigorate the uterus, increase milk flow, and restore the mother’s system after childbirth.99
Refer to label instructions
Sage has traditionally been used to dry up milk production when a woman no longer wishes to breast-feed.
Sage has traditionally been used to dry up milk production when a woman no longer wishes to breast-feed.100 It should not be taken during pregnancy.
Refer to label instructions
Vitex is one of the best recognized herbs in Europe for promoting lactation. One trial found that vitex tincture could increase the amount of milk produced by mothers with or without pregnancy complications.
Numerous herbs, known as galactagogues, are used in traditional herbal medicine systems around the world to promote production of breast milk.101 These are known as galactagogues. Vitex is one of the best recognized herbs in Europe for promoting lactation. An older German clinical trial found that 15 drops of a vitex tincture three times per day could increase the amount of milk produced by mothers with or without pregnancy complications, as compared with mothers given vitamin B1 or nothing.102 However, vitex should not be taken during pregnancy.
Pregnancy & Omega-3s: A Smart Combination for Baby’s Brain
1. Gold S, Sherry L. Hyperactivity, learning disabilities and alcohol. J Learn Disabil 1984;17:3-6.
2. Northrup C. Women's Bodies, Women's Wisdom. New York: Bantam, 1994, 613.
3. Haglund B, Cnattingius S. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome. Am J Public Health 1990;80:29-32.
4. Adapted from McGanity WJ, Dawson EB, Van Hook JW. Maternal nutrition. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1999, 811-38.
5. Institute of Medicine. Nutrition during pregnancy, weight gain and nutrient supplements. Report of the Subcommittee on Nutritional Status and weight Gain during Pregnancy, Subcommittee on Dietary Intake and Nutrient Supplements during Pregnancy, Committee on Nutritional Status during Pregnancy and Lactation, Food and Nutrition Board. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990, 1-233.
6. Caulfield LE, Witter FR, Stoltzfus RJ. Determinants of gestational weight gain outside the recommended ranges among black and white women. Obstet Gynecol 1996;87:760-6.
7. Hickey CA, Cliver SP, Goldenberg RL, et al. Prenatal weight gain, term birth weight, and fetal growth retardation among high-risk multiparous black and white women. Obstet Gynecol 1993;81:529-35.
8. Parker JD, Abrams B. Prenatal weight gain advice: an examination of the recent prenatal weight gain recommendations of the Institute of Medicine. Obstet Gynecol 1992;79:664-9.
9. Johnson JW, Yancey MK. A critique of the new recommendations for weight gain in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;174(1 Pt 1):254-8 [review].
10. Abrams B, Parker JD. Maternal weight gain in women with good pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol 1990;76:1-7.
11. Carmichael S, Abrams B, Selvin S. The pattern of maternal weight gain in women with good pregnancy outcomes. Am J Public Health 1997;87:1984-8.
12. Abrams B, Altman SL, Pickett KE. Pregnancy weight gain: still controversial. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5 Suppl):1233S-41S [review].
13. Galtier-Dereure F, Boegner C, Bringer J. Obesity and pregnancy: complications and cost. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5 Suppl):1242S-8S [review].
14. Carmichael SL, Abrams B. A critical review of the relationship between gestational weight gain and preterm delivery. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89:865-73 [review].
15. Abrams B, Altman SL, Pickett KE. Pregnancy weight gain: still controversial. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5 Suppl):1233S-41S [review].
16. Wedenberg K, Moen B, Norling A. A prospective randomized study comparing acupuncture with physiotherapy for low-back and pelvic pain in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2000;79:331-5.
17. Carlsson CPO, Axemo P, Bodin A, et al. Manual acupuncture reduces hyperemesis gravidarum: a placebo-controlled, randomized, single-blind, crossover study. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000;20:273-9.
18. Stainton MC, Neff EJ. The efficacy of SeaBands for the control of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Health Care Women Int 1994;15:563-75.
19. Belluomini J, Litt RC, Lee KA, Katz M. Acupressure for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized, blinded study. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84:245-8.
20. Hyde E. Acupressure therapy for morning sickness. A controlled clinical trial. J Nurse Midwifery 1989;34:171-8.
21. Barnes B, Bradley SG. Planning for a Healthy Baby. London: Ebury Press, 1990.
22. Doyle W, et al. The association between maternal diet and birth dimensions. J Nutr Med 1990;1:9-17.
23. Price WA. Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, 50th anniv. ed. New Canaan, CT: Keats, 1989.
24. Khoury J, Henriksen T, Christophersen B, Tonstad S. Effect of a cholesterol-lowering diet on maternal, cord, and neonatal lipids, and pregnancy outcome: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;193:1292-301.
25. Infante-Rivard C, Fernandez A, Gauthier R, et al. Fetal loss associated with caffeine intake before and during pregnancy. JAMA 1993;270:2940-3.
26. Srisuphan W, Bracken MB. Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and association with late spontaneous abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986;154:14-20.
27. Dlugosz L, Belanger K, Hellenbrand K, et al. Maternal caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion: a prospective cohort study. Epidemiology 1996;7:250-5.
28. Fenster L, Eskenazi B, Windham GC, Swan SH. Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. Epidemiology 1991;2(3):168-74.
29. Klebanoff MA, Levine RJ, DerSimonian R, et al. Maternal serum paraxanthine, a caffeine metabolite, and the risk of spontaneous abortion. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1639-44.
30. Fernandes O, Sabharwal M, Smiley T, et al. Moderate to heavy caffeine consumption during pregnancy and relationship to spontaneous abortion and abnormal fetal growth: a meta-analysis. Reprod Toxicol 1998;12:435-44.
31. Caffeine in pregnancy. Rockville, MD: Food and Drug Administration, 1981. (FDA 81-1081.
32. Truswell AS. ABC of nutrition. Nutrition for pregnancy. Br Med J 1985;291:263-6.
33. Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Schall JI, et al. Dietary and serum folate: their influence on the outcome of pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:520-5.
34. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. Prevention of neural tube defects: Results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991;338:131-7.
35. Tamura T, Goldenberg RL, Johnston KE, et al. Serum concentrations of zinc, folate, vitamins A and E, and proteins, and their relationships to pregnancy outcome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl 1997;165:63-70.
36. Tamura T, Goldenberg RL, Freeberg LE, et al. Maternal serum folate and zinc concentrations and their relationships to pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:365-70.
37. Goldenberg RL, Tamura T, Cliver SP, et al. Serum folate and fetal growth retardation: a matter of compliance? Obstet Gynecol 1992;795 (Pt 1):719-22.
38. Neggers YH, Goldenberg RL, Tamura T, et al. The relationship between maternal dietary intake and infant birthweight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl 1997;165:71-5.
39. Frelut ML, de Courcy GP, Christides JP, et al. Relationship between maternal folate status and foetal hypotrophy in a population with a good socio-economical level. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:267-71.
40. Ek J. Plasma and red cell folate in mothers and infants in normal pregnancies. Relation to birth weight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1982;61:17-20.
41. Malinow MR, Rajkovic A, Duell PB, et al. The relationship between maternal and neonatal umbilical cord plasma homocyst(e)ine suggests a potential role for maternal homocyst(e)ine in fetal metabolism. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;178:228-33.
42. Burke G, Robinson K, Refsum H, et al. Intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death, and maternal homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 1992;326:69-70 [letter].
43. Iyengar L, Rajalakshmi K. Effect of folic acid supplement on birth weights of infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1975;122:332-6.
44. Rolschau J, Date J, Kristoffersen K. Folic acid supplement and intrauterine growth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1979;58:343-6.
45. Blot I, Papiernik E, Kaltwasser JP, et al. Influence of routine administration of folic acid and iron during pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1981;12:294-304.
46. Baumslag N, Edelstein T, Metz J. Reduction of incidence of prematurity by folic acid supplementation in pregnancy. Br Med J 1970;1:16-7.
47. Fleming AF, Martin JD, Hahnel R, Westlake AJ. Effects of iron and folic acid antenatal supplements on maternal haematology and fetal wellbeing. Med J Aust 1974;2:429-36.
48. Fletcher J, Gurr A, Fellingham FR, et al. The value of folic acid supplements in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1971;78:781-5.
49. Giles PF, Harcourt AG, Whiteside MG. The effect of prescribing folic acid during pregnancy on birth-weight and duration of pregnancy. A double-blind trial. Med J Aust 1971;2:17-21.
50. Sutterlin M, Bussen S, Ruppert D, Steck T. Serum levels of folate and cobalamin in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Hum Reprod 1997;12:2292-6.
51. Wouters MG, Boers GH, Blom HJ, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor in women with unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril 1993;60:820-5.
52. Steegers-Theunissen RP, Boers GH, Blom HJ, et al. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and recurrent spontaneous abortion or abruptio placentae. Lancet 1992;339:1122-3 [letter].
53. Quere I, Bellet H, Hoffet M, et al. A woman with five consecutive fetal deaths: case report and retrospective analysis of hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence in 100 consecutive women with recurrent miscarriages. Fertil Steril 1998;69:152-4.
54. Quere I, Mercier E, Bellet H, et al. Vitamin supplementation and pregnancy outcome in women with recurrent early pregnancy loss and hyperhomocysteinemia. Fertil Steril 2001;75:823-5.
55. Pietrzik K, Prinz R, Reusch K, et al. Folate status and pregnancy outcome. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1992;669:371-3.
56. Neiger R, Wise C, Contag SA, et al. First trimester bleeding and pregnancy outcome in gravidas with normal and low folate levels. Am J Perinatol 1993;10:460-2.
57. Neela J, Raman L. The relationship between maternal nutritional status and spontaneous abortion. Natl Med J India 1997;10:15-6.
58. Botto LD, Mulinare J, Erickson JD. Occurrence of congenital heart defects in relation to maternal mulitivitamin use. Am J Epidemiol 2000;151:878-84.
59. Czeizel AE. Reduction of urinary tract and cardiovascular defects by periconceptional multivitamin supplementation. Am J Med Genet 1996;62:179-83.
60. Tamura T, Goldenberg RL, Freeberg LE, et al. Maternal serum folate and zinc concentrations and their relationships to pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:365-70.
61. Bath SC, Steer CD, Golding J, et al. Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Lancet. 2013;382:331–7.
62. Vermiglio F, Lo Presti VP, Moleti M, et al. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders in the offspring of mothers exposed to mild-moderate iodine deficiency: a possible novel iodine deficiency disorder in developed countries. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:6054-60.
63. Mock DM, Quirk JG, Mock NI. Marginal biotin deficiency during normal pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:295-9.
64. Truswell AS. ABC of nutrition. Nutrition for pregnancy. Br Med J 1985;291:263-6.
65. Villar J, Repke JT. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy may reduce preterm delivery in high-risk populations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;163:1124-31.
66. Ritchie LD, King JC. Dietary calcium and pregnancy-induced hypertension: is there a relation? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5 Suppl):1371S-4S [review].
67. Villar J, Belizan JM. Same nutrient, different hypotheses: disparities in trials of calcium supplementation during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5 Suppl):1375-9S [review].
68. Koo WWK, Walters JC, Esterlitz J, et al. Maternal calcium supplementation and fetal bone mineralization. Obstet Gynecol 1999;94:577-82.
69. Olsen SF, Secher NJ, Tabor A, et al. Randomised clinical trials of fish oil supplementation in high risk pregnancies. Fish Oil Trials In Pregnancy (FOTIP) Team. Brit J Obstet Gynecol 2000;107:382-95.
70. Steuerwald U, Weihe P, Jorgensen PJ, et al. Maternal seafood diet, methylmercury exposure, and neonatal neurologic function. J Pediatr 2000;136:599-605.
71. Birch EE, Castaneda YS, Wheaton DH, Birch DG, Uauy RD, Hoffman DR. Visual maturation of term infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented or control formula for 12 mo. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:871-9.
72. Allen LH. Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(5 Suppl):1280S-4S [review].
73. Yu SM, Keppel KG, Singh GK, Kessel W. Preconceptional and prenatal multivitamin-mineral supplement use in the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey. Am J Public Health 1996;86:240-2.
74. Romslo I, Haram K, Sagen N, Augensen K. Iron requirement in normal pregnancy as assessed by serum ferritin, serum transferrin saturation and erythrocyte protoporphyrin determinations. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1983;90:101-7.
75. Hemminki E, Uski A, Koponen P, Rimpela U. Iron supplementation during pregnancy—experiences of a randomized trial relying on health service personnel. Control Clin Trials 1989;10:290-8.
76. al-Momen AK, al-Meshari A, al-Nuaim L, et al. Intravenous iron sucrose complex in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1996;69:121-4.
77. Bloxam DL, Williams NR, Waskett RJD, et al. Maternal zinc during oral iron supplementation in pregnancy: a preliminary study. Clin Sci 1989;76:59-65.
78. Mukherjee MD, Sandstead HH, Ratnaparkhi MV, et al. Maternal zinc, iron, folic acid, and protein nutriture and outcome of human pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;40:496-507.
79. Nelson MM, Forfar JO. Associations between drugs administered during pregnancy and congenital abnormalities of the fetus. Br Med J 1971;1:523-7.
80. Supakatisant C, Phupong V. Oral magnesium for relief in pregnancy-induced leg cramps: a randomised controlled trial. <em>Matern Child Nutr</em> 2012 Aug 22 [Epub ahead of print].
81. Nygaard IH, Valbo A, Pethick SV, Bohmer T. Does oral magnesium substitution relieve pregnancy-induced leg cramps? <em>Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol</em> 2008;141:23-6.
82. Frezza M, Surrenti C, Manzillo G, et al. Oral S-adenosylmethionine in the symptomatic treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gastroenterology 1990;99:211-5.
83. Frezza M, Centini G, Cammareri G, et al. S-adenosylmethionine for the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Results of a controlled clinical trial. Hepatogastroenterology 1990;37 Suppl 2:122-5.
84. Frezza M, Centini G, Cammareri G, et al. S-adenosylmethionine for the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Results of a controlled clinical trial. Hepatogastroenterology 1990;37 Suppl 2:122-5.
85. Frezza M, Surrenti C, Manzillo G, et al. Oral S-adenosylmethionine in the symptomatic treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gastroenterology 1990;99:211-5.
86. Sutterlin M, Bussen S, Ruppert D, Steck T. Serum levels of folate and cobalamin in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Hum Reprod 1997;12:2292-6.
87. Wouters MG, Boers GH, Blom HJ, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor in women with unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril 1993;60:820-5.
88. Steegers-Theunissen RP, Boers GH, Blom HJ, et al. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and recurrent spontaneous abortion or abruptio placentae. Lancet 1992;339:1122-3 [letter].
89. Quere I, Bellet H, Hoffet M, et al. A woman with five consecutive fetal deaths: case report and retrospective analysis of hyperhomocysteinemia prevalence in 100 consecutive women with recurrent miscarriages. Fertil Steril 1998;69:152-4.
90. Quere I, Mercier E, Bellet H, et al. Vitamin supplementation and pregnancy outcome in women with recurrent early pregnancy loss and hyperhomocysteinemia. Fertil Steril 2001;75:823-5.
91. Casanueva E, Ripoll C, Tolentino M, et al. Vitamin C supplementation to prevent premature rupture of the chorioamniotic membranes: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:859-63.
92. Velie EM, Block G, Shaw GM, et al. Maternal supplemental and dietary zinc intake and the occurrence of neural tube defects in California. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150:605-16.
93. Gladstar R. Herbal Healing for Women. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993, 176.
94. Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Gothenburg, Sweden: Ab Arcanum and Beaconsfield, UK: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd., 1988, 318.
95. Gladstar R. Herbal Healing for Women. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993, 176.
96. Gladstar R. Herbal Healing for Women. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1993, 177.
97. Kohama T, Inoue M. Pycnogenol alleviates pain associated with pregnancy. Phytother Res 2006;20:232-4.
98. Gladstar R. Herbal Healing for Women. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993, 176.
99. Gladstar R. Herbal Healing for Women. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1993, 177.
100. Weiss RF. Herbal Medicine. Gothenburg, Sweden: Ab Arcanum and Beaconsfield, UK: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd., 1988, 229-30.
101. Bingel AS, Farnsworth NR. Higher plants as potential sources of galactagogues. Econ Med Plant Res 1994;6:1-54 [review].
102. Mohr H. [Clinical investigations of means to increase lactation.] Dtsch Med Wschr 1954;79:1513-6 [in German].
The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2015.
How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.
Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.