Decrease (-) Restore Default Increase (+)
Print    Email
Bookmark and Share

Health Information

Health Information

Health Information

Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Cam

Search Health Information    Multiple Sclerosis (Holistic)

Multiple Sclerosis (Holistic)

About This Condition

Scientists have learned a lot about this debilitating nerve disease, but there is still no cure. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful.
  • Discover Padma Basic

    Improve muscle strength and other symptoms by taking two pills of this herbal remedy three times a day

  • Switch to the Swank diet

    Reduce disability and mortality by eating a diet low in animal fats and hydrogenated oils and high in linoleic acid from natural vegetable oils, and by supplementing with 5 grams of cod liver oil daily

  • Say good-bye to smoking

    Kick the habit to reduce the risk of impaired movement

About

About This Condition

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a slowly progressive, degenerative condition in which the myelin sheaths surrounding nerves in the brain and spinal cord are lost. Myelin sheaths are a type of connective tissue, composed of fats and proteins, that insulate nerve fibers. They protect nerves and are required for effective transmission of nerve impulses.

Indirect evidence suggests that MS may be an autoimmune disease, wherein the immune system attacks myelin in the central nervous system. MS is more common among people who live in temperate climates compared with those who live in tropical climates and receive greater exposure to the sun. Possible causes for MS may include genetic susceptibility, diet, environmental toxins, viral infections, and exposure to dogs, cats, or caged birds.1 Epstein-Barr virus has also been named as a risk factor,2 though the real cause or causes of MS are unknown.

Symptoms

MS is characterized by various neurological symptoms, with remissions and recurrent exacerbations. The most common symptoms are paresthesia (numbness and tingling) in the extremities, trunk, or on one side of the face. Muscle weakness, loss of coordination of a leg or hand, and visual disturbances (such as partial blindness in one eye, dim vision, or double vision) are common in MS. Limbs that fatigue easily, difficulty in walking, difficulty with bladder control, vertigo , and mood disturbances may appear years before MS is diagnosed. The course of the disease is highly varied and unpredictable. In most people, the disease remits for varying periods of time. However, symptoms usually recur, and the progression is often relentless.

Healthy Lifestyle Tips

While some studies dispute it,3 , 4 there is preliminary evidence that exposure to organic solvents,5 insecticides,6 and X-rays7 may cause or aggravate MS. This may explain why clusters of multiple sclerosis cases occasionally occur in certain geographical areas or even in work sites.8

Swiss researchers found that nicotine temporarily impairs arm movement in people with MS.9 In one study, when people with MS smoked cigarettes, movement capacity was diminished for 10 minutes in 76% of them. Although this evidence is preliminary, there are many other adverse health effects of smoking. Smokers with MS should quit smoking.

While the outcome of some research disputes the connection between MS and mercury exposure,10 other investigations have reported an association between dental amalgams and this disease. One study found that mercury levels in the hair of people with MS are higher than in the hair of healthy people.11 This same report found that people with MS who had their amalgam fillings removed experienced one-third fewer relapses than people who kept their fillings. Another preliminary study found that people having a large number of fillings that had been in place for a long time appeared to be at increased risk for MS compared with those having fewer fillings.12 Preliminary evidence has also identified an association between tooth decay —as opposed to fillings—and MS.13 The importance of the reported links between mercury, tooth decay, and risk of MS has not been clearly established.

Eating Right

The right diet is the key to managing many diseases and to improving general quality of life. For this condition, scientific research has found benefit in the following healthy eating tips.

Recommendation Why
Switch to the Swank diet
Supplementing with 5 grams of cod liver oil daily, eating foods high in linoleic acid from natural vegetable oils, such as sunflower oil and sunflower seeds, while eating a diet low in animal fats and hydrogenated oils may reduce disability and lengthen life.

The amount and type of fat eaten may affect both the likelihood of healthy people getting the disease and the outcome of the disease for those already diagnosed with MS. For many years, the leading researcher linking dietary fat to MS risk and progression has been Dr. Roy Swank.

In one of Dr. Swank’s reports, a low-fat diet was recommended to 150 people with MS.14 Although hydrogenated oils, peanut butter, and animal fat (including fat from dairy) were dramatically reduced or eliminated, 5 grams per day of cod liver oil were added, and linoleic acid from vegetable oil was used. After 34 years, the mortality rate among people consuming an average of 17 grams of saturated fat per day was only 31%, compared with 79% among those who consumed a higher average of 25 grams of saturated fat per day. People who began to follow the low-fat diet early in the disease did better than those who changed their eating habits after the disease had progressed.

A survey of people in 36 different countries also suggests that the types of fat people eat may impact MS.15 In that report, people with MS who ate foods high in polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were likely to live longer than those who ate more saturated fats. In another survey, researchers gathered information from nearly 400 people (half with MS) over three years.16 They found that people who ate more fish were less likely to develop MS, while those who ate pork, hot dogs, and other foods high in animal (saturated) fats were at greater risk. This same report found consumption of vegetable protein, fruit juice, and foods rich in vitamin C , thiamine , riboflavin , calcium , and potassium correlated with a decreased MS risk. Eating sweets was linked to an increased risk.

Despite research showing improvement with a low-fat diet in some people with MS, the link between foods containing animal fat and MS risk may not necessarily be due to the fat itself. Preliminary evidence from one report revealed an association between eating dairy foods (cows’milk, butter, and cream) and an increased prevalence of MS, yet no link was found between (high fat) cheese and MS in that same report.17

MS has been associated with a variety of dietary components apparently unrelated to fat intake,18 and the link between MS and diet remains poorly understood. Nonetheless, the most consistent links to date appear to involve certain foods containing animal fat. People with MS wishing to pursue a nutritional approach that incorporates an understanding of this research should consult with a doctor familiar with the “Swank diet.”

Go gluten-free
Some people with MS avoid gluten in hopes of diminishing symptoms because a study reported a link between grains and MS development, however, further research is needed to determine effectiveness.

Some people with MS avoid gluten (a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley) in hopes of diminishing symptoms, because a preliminary study reported that consumption of grain (bread and pasta) was linked to development of MS.19 However, another trial found an association between eating cereals and breads and reduced MS risk.20 Other researchers have found gluten sensitivity to be no more common among people with MS than among healthy people.21 Thus, the idea that avoiding gluten will help MS remains speculative.

Supplements

What Are Star Ratings?

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by some in the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

Supplement Why
2 Stars
Fish Oil
6 to 20 grams daily
Learn More

Although some doctors recommend fish oil capsules for people with MS, few investigations have explored the effects of this supplement. In one small trial, people with MS were given approximately 20 grams of fish oil in capsules per day.22 After one to four months, 42% of these people received slight but significant benefits, including reduced urinary incontinence and improved eyesight. However, a longer double-blind trial involving over 300 people with MS found that half this amount of fish oil given per day did not help.23A preliminary, two-year intervention trial tested the effects of fish oil supplements (5 ml of fish oil per day, providing 400 mg of EPA and 500 mg of DHA ) combined with other dietary supplements and dietary changes in people with newly diagnosed, relapsing-remitting MS.24 The other supplements included 3,333 IU of vitamin A per day, 400 IU of vitamin D per day, and approximately 5.5 IU of vitamin E per day. The dietary recommendations included reducing intake of sugar, coffee, tea, saturated fat from meat and dairy products, and alcohol, while increasing intake of fish, fruit, vegetables, and whole-grain bread. Sixty-nine percent of those following the regimen improved, 25% remained the same, and 6% (one person) deteriorated. The many interventions used in this trial make it impossible to determine what was responsible for the positive outcomes. Given the lack of other effective treatments for MS, though, this approach is worth trying while awaiting further evidence. In another trial, combining fish oil supplementation (6 grams per day) with a low-fat diet (15% of total calories) appeared to reduce the relapse rate in people with the relapsing-remitting form of MS.25

In a small preliminary trial, people with MS were given 20 grams of cod liver oil , as well as approximately 680 mg of magnesium and 1,100 mg of calcium per day in the form of dolomite tablets.26 After one year, the average number of MS attacks decreased significantly for each person. Unlike fish oil capsules, the cod liver oil in this trial contained not only eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), but 5,000 IU of vitamin D . Therefore, it is not known whether the vitamin D or fatty acids were responsible for the cod liver oil’s effects. (One preliminary study found that giving vitamin D-like drugs to animals with MS was helpful.)27 It is also possible that the magnesium and/or calcium given to these people reduced MS attacks. Magnesium28 and calcium29 levels have been reported to be lower in the nerve tissue of people with MS compared with healthy people.

2 Stars
L-Carnitine (Drug-Induced Fatigue)
3 to 6 grams daily
Learn More

Some drugs that are used to treat MS appear to deplete carnitine. In a preliminary trial, supplementation with 3 to 6 grams of L-carnitine per day significantly improved fatigue in 63% of drug-treated MS patients.30

2 Stars
Padma Basic
2 herbal tablets or capsules three times per day
Learn More

A commercial herbal product called Padma Basic was given to 100 people with MS.31 After taking two pills three times per day, 44% of these people experienced increased muscle strength and general overall improvement. The composition of Padma Basic is based on a traditional Tibetan herbal formula.

1 Star
Calcium
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Caution: Calcium supplements should be avoided by prostate cancer patients.

In a small preliminary trial, people with MS were given 20 grams of cod liver oil , as well as approximately 680 mg of magnesium and 1,100 mg of calcium per day in the form of dolomite tablets.32 After one year, the average number of MS attacks decreased significantly for each person. Unlike fish oil capsules, the cod liver oil in this trial contained not only eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), but 5,000 IU of vitamin D . Therefore, it is not known whether the vitamin D or fatty acids were responsible for the cod liver oil’s effects. (One preliminary study found that giving vitamin D-like drugs to animals with MS was helpful.)33 It is also possible that the magnesium and/or calcium given to these people reduced MS attacks. Magnesium34 and calcium35 levels have been reported to be lower in the nerve tissue of people with MS compared with healthy people.

1 Star
Conjugated Linoleic Acid
Refer to label instructions
Learn More
Omega-6 fatty acids found in sunflower seed oil (a source of linoleic acid) may be beneficial. Studies have reported that linoleic acid reduced relapse severity and length and decreased disability due to MS.36
1 Star
Evening Primrose Oil
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

The omega-6 fatty acids, found in such oils as evening primrose oil (EPO) and sunflower seed oil, also may be beneficial. When people with MS were given 4 grams of EPO for three weeks, their hand grip improved.37 In a review of three double-blind trials, two of the trials reported that linoleic acid reduced the severity and length of relapses.38 When the data were re-examined, it was found that taking linoleic acid decreased disability due to MS in all three trials. According to these researchers, taking linoleic acid while following a diet low in animal fat and high in polyunsaturated fat may be even more beneficial. Amounts used in these trials were approximately 17 to 23 grams of linoleic acid per day, provided by 26 to 35 grams of sunflower seed oil.

1 Star
Ginkgo
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Inflammation of nerve tissue is partly responsible for the breakdown of myelin in people with MS. When intravenous injections of a constituent of Ginkgo biloba , known as ginkgolide B, were given to people with MS for five days, 80% of them reportedly improved.39 This specialized treatment is experimental, and it is not known whether oral use of ginkgo extracts would have a similar effect.

1 Star
Inosine
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Inosine is a precursor to uric acid, a compound that occurs naturally in the body. Uric acid is believed to block the effect of a toxic free-radical compound (peroxynitrite) that may play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis.40 In an attempt to raise uric acid levels, ten patients with MS were treated with inosine in amounts up to 3 grams per day for 46 weeks. Three of the ten treated patients showed some evidence of improved function and the others remained stable.41 Controlled studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

1 Star
Magnesium
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

In a small preliminary trial, people with MS were given 20 grams of cod liver oil , as well as approximately 680 mg of magnesium and 1,100 mg of calcium per day in the form of dolomite tablets.42 After one year, the average number of MS attacks decreased significantly for each person. Unlike fish oil capsules, the cod liver oil in this trial contained not only eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), but 5,000 IU of vitamin D . Therefore, it is not known whether the vitamin D or fatty acids were responsible for the cod liver oil’s effects. (One preliminary study found that giving vitamin D-like drugs to animals with MS was helpful.)43 It is also possible that the magnesium and/or calcium given to these people reduced MS attacks. Magnesium44 and calcium45 levels have been reported to be lower in the nerve tissue of people with MS compared with healthy people.

1 Star
Vitamin B1
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) may contribute to nerve damage.46 Many years ago, researchers found that injecting thiamine47 into the spinal cord or using intravenous thiamine combined with niacin 48 in people with MS led to a reduction in symptoms. Using injectable vitamins requires medical supervision. No research has yet studied the effects of oral supplementation with B vitamins in people with MS.

1 Star
Vitamin B3
Refer to label instructions
Learn More
Deficiency of thiamine may contribute to nerve damage.49 Many years ago, researchers found that injecting thiamine50 into the spinal cord or using intravenous thiamine combined with niacin51 in people with MS led to a reduction in symptoms. Using injectable vitamins requires medical supervision. No research has yet studied the effects of oral supplementation with B vitamins in people with MS.
1 Star
Vitamin D
Refer to label instructions
Learn More
Animal studies have demonstrated that vitamin D can prevent an experimental form of multiple sclerosis. In humans, striking geographical differences in the prevalence of multiple sclerosis suggest that sun exposure (which promotes the synthesis of vitamin D) may protect against the development of the disease. In addition, higher blood levels of vitamin D are associated with a lower risk of developing MS.52 However, no clinical trials have been done to determine whether increasing vitamin D intake or sunlight exposure would prevent MS.

In a preliminary trial, treatment with very large amounts of vitamin D (more than 10,000 IU per day) was associated with a decrease in the number of relapses in patients with MS; however, the decrease was not statistically significant.53 In a double-blind study of patients with MS, a large amount of vitamin D (approximately 10,000 IU per day), when compared with a moderate amount (1,000 IU per day), resulted in a significant increase in the relapse rate and in the degree of disability.54 Based on the available evidence, large amounts of vitamin D cannot be recommended as a treatment for MS. Additional research is needed to determine whether moderate amounts of vitamin D would be beneficial.

References

1. Landtblom AM, Flodin U, Karlsson M, et al. Multiple sclerosis and exposure to solvents, ionizing radiation and animals. Scand J Work Environ Health 1993;19:399–404.

2. Haahr S, Koch-Henriksen N, Moller-Larsen A, et al. Increased risk of multiple sclerosis after late Epstein-Barr virus infection: a historical prospective study. Mult Scler 1995;1:73–7.

3. Mortensen JT, Bronnum-Hansen H, Rasmussen K. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents. Epidemiology 1998;9:168–71.

4. Juntunen J, Kinnunen E, Antti-Poika M, Koskenvuo M. Multiple sclerosis and occupational exposure to chemicals: a co-twin control study of a nationwide series of twins. Br J Ind Med 1989;46:417–9.

5. Landtblom AM, Flodin U, Soderfeldt B, et al. Organic solvents and multiple sclerosis: a synthesis of the current evidence. Epidemiology 1996;7:429–33 [review].

6. Blisard KS, Kornfeld M, McFeeley PJ, Smialek JE. The investigation of alleged insecticide toxicity: a case involving chlordane exposure, multiple sclerosis, and peripheral neuropathy. J Forensic Sci 1986;31:1499–504.

7. Landtblom AM, Flodine U, Karlsson M, et al. Multiple sclerosis and exposure to solvents, ionizing radiation and animals. Scand J Work Environ Health 1993;19:399–404.

8. Krebs JM, Park RM, Boal WL. A neurological disease cluster at a manufacturing plant. Arch Environ Health 1995;50:190–5.

9. Emre M, de Decker C. Effects of cigarette smoking on motor functions in patients with multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 1992;49:1243–7.

10. Fung YK, Meade AG, Rack EP, Blotcky AJ. Brain mercury in neurodegenerative disorders. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1997;35:49–54.

11. Siblerud RL, Kienholz E. Evidence that mercury from silver dental fillings may be an etiological factor in multiple sclerosis. Sci Total Environ 1994;142:191–205.

12. Bangsi D, Ghadirian P, Ducic S, et al. Dental amalgam and multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada. Int J Epidemiol 1998;27:667–71.

13. Craelius W. Comparative epidemiology of multiple sclerosis and dental caries. J Epidemiol Community Health 1978;32:155–65.

14. Swank RL. Multiple sclerosis: fat-oil relationship. Nutrition 1991;7:368–76.

15. Esparza ML, Saski S, Kesteloot H. Nutrition, latitude, and multiple sclerosis mortality: an ecologic study. Am J Epidemiol 1995;142:733–7.

16. Ghadirian P, Jain M, Ducic S, et al. Nutritional factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada. Int J Epidemiol 1998;(5):845–52.

17. Malosse D, Perron H, Sasco A, Seigneurin JM. Correlation between milk and dairy product consumption and multiple sclerosis prevalence: a worldwide study. Neuroepidemiology 1992;11:304–12.

18. Tola MR, Granieri E, Malagu S, et al. Dietary habits and multiple sclerosis. A retrospective study in Ferrara, Italy. Acta Neurol (Napoli) 1994;16:189–97.

19. Esparza ML, Saski S, Kesteloot H. Nutrition, latitude, and multiple sclerosis mortality: an ecologic study. Am J Epidemiol 1995;142:733–7.

20. Ghadirian P, Jain M, Ducic S, et al. Nutritional factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada. Int J Epidemiol 1998;27:845–52.

21. Hadjivassiliou M, Gibson A, Davies-Jones GA, et al. Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet 1996;347:369–71.

22. Cendrowski W. Multiple sclerosis and MaxEPA. Br J Clin Pract 1986;40:365–7.

23. Bates D, Cartlidge NE, French JM, et al. A double-blind controlled trial of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:18–22.

24. Nordvik I, Myhr KM, Nyland H, Bjerve KS. Effect of dietary advice and n-3 supplementation in newly diagnosed MS patients. Acta Neurol Scand 2000;102:143–9.

25. Weinstock-Guttman B, Baier M, Park Y, et al. Low fat dietary intervention with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in multiple sclerosis patients. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005;73:397–404.

26. Goldberg P, Fleming MC, Picard EH. Multiple sclerosis: decreased relapse rate through dietary supplementation with calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. Med Hypothesis 1986;21:193–200.

27. DeLuca HF, Zierold C. Mechanisms and functions of vitamin D. Nutr Rev 1998;56(2 Pt 2):S4–10 [review].

28. Yasui M, Yase Y, Ando K, et al. Magnesium concentration in brains from multiple sclerosis patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1990;81:197–200.

29. Yasui M, Ota K. Experimental and clinical studies on dysregulation of magnesium metabolism and the aetiopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Magnes Res 1992;5:295–302.

30. Lebrun C, Alchaar H, Candito M, et al. Levocarnitine administration in multiple sclerosis patients with immunosuppressive therapy-induced fatigue. Mult Scler2006;12:321–4.

31. Korwin-Piotrowska T, Nocoñ D, Stankowska-Chomicz A, et al. Experience of Padma 28 in multiple sclerosis. Phytother Res 1992;6:133–6.

32. Goldberg P, Fleming MC, Picard EH. Multiple sclerosis: decreased relapse rate through dietary supplementation with calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. Med Hypothesis 1986;21:193–200.

33. DeLuca HF, Zierold C. Mechanisms and functions of vitamin D. Nutr Rev 1998;56(2 Pt 2):S4–10 [review].

34. Yasui M, Yase Y, Ando K, et al. Magnesium concentration in brains from multiple sclerosis patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1990;81:197–200.

35. Yasui M, Ota K. Experimental and clinical studies on dysregulation of magnesium metabolism and the aetiopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Magnes Res 1992;5:295–302.

36. Rosnowska M, Cendrowski W, Piesio B, Wieczorkiewicz M.Effect of short-term administration of sunflower oil on the blood serum level of linoleic and arachidonic acids and lipids in multiple sclerosis, Neurol Neurochir Pol, 1980;14:27-37 [in Polish].

37. Werbach M. Nutritional Influences on Illness. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1996, 434 [review].

38. Dworkin RH, Bates D, Millar JH, Paty DW. Linoleic acid and multiple sclerosis: a reanalysis of three double-blind trials. Neurology 1984;34:1441–5 [review].

39. Brochet B, Orgogozo JM, Guinot P, et al. Pilot study of Ginkgolide B, a PAF-acether specific inhibitor in the treatment of acute outbreaks of multiple sclerosis. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1992;148:299–301 [in French].

40. Koprowski H, Spitsin SV, Hooper DC. Prospects for the treatment of multiple sclerosis by raising serum levels of uric acid, a scavenger of peroxynitrite. Ann Neurol 2001;49:139.

41. Koprowski H, Spitsin SV, Hooper DC. Prospects for the treatment of multiple sclerosis by raising serum levels of uric acid, a scavenger of peroxynitrite. Ann Neurol 2001;49:139.

42. Goldberg P, Fleming MC, Picard EH. Multiple sclerosis: decreased relapse rate through dietary supplementation with calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. Med Hypothesis 1986;21:193–200.

43. DeLuca HF, Zierold C. Mechanisms and functions of vitamin D. Nutr Rev 1998;56(2 Pt 2):S4–10 [review].

44. Yasui M, Yase Y, Ando K, et al. Magnesium concentration in brains from multiple sclerosis patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1990;81:197–200.

45. Yasui M, Ota K. Experimental and clinical studies on dysregulation of magnesium metabolism and the aetiopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Magnes Res 1992;5:295–302.

46. Dines KC, Powell HC. Mast cell interactions with the nervous system: relationship to mechanisms of disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1997;56:627–40.

47. Stern EI. The intraspinal injection of vitamin B1 for the relief of intractable pain, and for inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the central nervous system. Am J Surg 1938;34:495.

48. Moore MT. Treatment of multiple sclerosis with nicotinic acid and vitamin B1. Arch Int Med 1940;65:18.

49. Dines KC, Powell HC. Mast cell interactions with the nervous system: relationship to mechanisms of disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1997;56:627–40.

50. Stern EI. The intraspinal injection of vitamin B1 for the relief of intractable pain, and for inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the central nervous system. Am J Surg 1938;34:495.

51. Moore MT. Treatment of multiple sclerosis with nicotinic acid and vitamin B1. Arch Int Med 1940;65:18.

52. Munger KL, Levin LI, Hollis BW, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis. JAMA 2006;296:2832–8.

53. Burton JM, Kimball S, Vieth R, et al. A phase I/II dose-escalation trial of vitamin D3 and calcium in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2010;74:1852–9.

54. Stein MS, Liu Y, Gray OM, et al. A randomized trial of high-dose vitamin D2 in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2011;77:1611–8.

This information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise, Incorporated disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information. Your use of this information means that you agree to the Terms of Use. How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.

Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.

© 2014 St. Mary's Health System   |  3700 Washington Avenue  |  Evansville, IN 47750  |  (812) 485-4000