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Living Organ Donation

Topic Overview

Introduction

More than 100,000 people in the United States are waiting for an organ to become available for a transplant that can save their lives. Most organs come from donors who have died. But about half of all organ donors are living donors.

How can you be a living organ donor?

Most people can be organ donors. Many people choose to donate an organ upon their death. But a person can donate certain organs while he or she is still living. These people are called "living donors."

A living donor is:

  • In good general health.
  • Free from diseases that can damage the organs, such as diabetes, uncontrolled high blood pressure, or cancer.
  • Willing to donate and free from mental health problems.
  • Usually older than age 18.
  • A match with the person receiving the organ.

Who can you donate to?

You can direct your donation to someone you know: a family member, a friend, a coworker, or a person that you know needs an organ. Or you can donate to someone in need by donating to the national waiting list. Medical tests will show if your organ is a good match with the recipient.

How is it decided who gets priority for transplants?

If you do a directed donation, your organ goes only to the person you name. If you donate to the national waiting list, your organ will go to an anonymous person on the list. If you donate to the national waiting list, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network uses a computer to match your organ with possible recipients based on things such as tissue and blood type.

What organs can you donate?

Living donors can donate these organs:

You can also donate bone marrow , umbilical cord blood, and peripheral blood stem cells .

What's the process for making an organ donation?

When you are a possible living donor, your rights and privacy are carefully protected. It's also very important to be informed about the risks of donating an organ. To help you make the best decision for you, you will have an independent donor advocate (IDA) who will guide you and answer your questions.

Here are the steps for making a donation:

  • Contact the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) at 1-888-894-6361 or go online at www.unos.org to get more information and to locate the nearest transplant center.
  • Learn about the risks. Risks vary with the organ donated and from person to person.
  • Complete a medical evaluation that includes these tests:
    • A cross-match for transplant. This is a blood test that shows whether the recipient's body will reject your donor organ immediately. The cross-match will mix your blood with the recipient's blood to see if proteins in the recipient's blood might attack your donated organ. If they do, you are not a good match with the recipient.
    • Antibody screen. This test measures whether you or the recipient has antibodies against a broad range of people. If either of you does, it means there is a higher risk of rejection, even if the cross-match shows that you and the organ recipient are a good match.
    • Blood type. This is a blood test that shows which type of blood you have—type A, B, O, or AB. Your blood type should be compatible with the organ recipient's blood type. But it is sometimes possible to transplant an organ between people with different blood types.
    • Tissue type. This is a blood test that shows the genetic makeup of your body's cells. The more traits you share with the organ recipient, the more likely it is that his or her body will accept your donated organ.
    • A mental health assessment. Many emotional issues are involved in donating an organ. A mental health assessment takes a careful look at your emotional health and how donation would affect you and your family. It will also show if you understand your own interests, the future effects on your health, and whether you're feeling pressure to donate from another person or from a sense of obligation.

Two types of surgery are commonly used to remove an organ or a portion of an organ from a living donor.

  • Open surgery involves cutting the skin, muscles, and tissues to remove the organ. When open surgery is done, the person may have more pain and a longer recovery time.
  • Laparoscopic surgery is a procedure in which a surgeon makes a number of small incisions and uses scopes to remove the organ from a living donor.

Throughout the planning process, know that it's never too late to change your mind about donating an organ. Talk with your IDA and others you trust to be sure you're making the right decision for you. Your long-term health is just as important as that of the person who will receive your donation.

What are the facts about living organ donation?

You don't have to be in perfect health to donate an organ. As long as the organ you donate is healthy, there are a lot of health conditions that won't prevent a successful donation.

Living organ donation can be risky for both the donor and the recipient. Removing an organ, or a part of an organ, from your body involves major surgery. There is always the risk of complications from surgery, such as pain, infection, pneumonia, bleeding, and even death. After the surgery you may face changes in your body from having removed one of your organs.

Living organ donation can be costly. Your medical expenses related to the transplant surgery will be paid for by the recipient's insurance, Medicaid, or Medicare. You may get help with some of your travel expenses, either through the recipient or the National Living Donor Assistance Center. But also think of your costs in terms of lost wages, child care, and possible medical problems in the future. Your own insurance premiums may rise after the surgery, and later you might have problems getting or keeping health, life, or disability insurance. Check with your insurance provider for more information about how your donation may affect your coverage.

Living organ donation is rewarding. After a successful transplant, most donors feel a special sense of well-being because they have saved a life.

All major religions allow organ donation. The Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Hindu faiths encourage organ donation or leave it up to individual choice. Ask your spiritual advisor if you have questions about your religion's views on organ donation.

Other Places To Get Help

Organizations

Donate Life America
701 East Byrd Street
16th Floor
Richmond, VA 23219
Phone: (804) 377-3580
Email: donatelifeamerica@donatelife.net
Web Address: http://donatelife.net
 

Donate Life America is an organization supported by the transplant community. This group works at a local level to educate Americans on the need for organ donation. The website includes information on how to become an organ donor, other information on organ donation, and personal stories about organ donors and recipients. This group used to be called the Coalition on Donation.


Healthy Transplant
15000 Commerce Parkway
Suite C
Mount Laurel, NJ 08054
Phone: (856) 439-9986
Fax: (856) 439-9982
Email: ast@ahint.com
Web Address: www.healthytransplant.com
 

Healthy Transplant is a website sponsored by the American Society of Transplantation. This website helps people learn about transplantation. Patients can build a profile and take an active role in their health care. The website was created to help patients and family members understand more about transplantation and help people be more involved in their health care.


OrganDonor.Gov
Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
200 Independence Avenue SW
Washington, DC 20201
Phone: 1-877-696-6775 toll-free
Web Address: www.organdonor.gov
 

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services provides information on organ tissue donation and transplantation through its OrganDonor.gov website. It lists the number of people currently on the waiting list for transplants. It gives information on how to become an organ or tissue donor and describes the process of transplantation. It also provides information on research and guidelines, and it lists resources such as locations of transplant centers.


United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS)
700 North 4th Street
Richmond, VA  23219
Phone: 1-888-894-6361
Web Address: www.unos.org
 

The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) is a nonprofit scientific and educational organization that administers the nation's only Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN). It was established by the U.S. Congress in 1984. UNOS collects and manages data about every transplant event occurring in the United States, facilitates the organ matching and placement process, and brings together health professionals, transplant recipients, and donor families to develop organ transplantation policy. UNOS:

  • Matches donors to recipients and coordinates the organ-sharing process 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
  • Maintains the databases that contain all clinical transplant data for every transplant event that occurs in the United States.
  • Performs data analyses, fills data requests, produces the Annual and other data reports, and authors authoritative publications.
  • Monitors every organ match to ensure adherence to UNOS policy, and works with the Board of Directors to develop equitable policies that maximize the limited supply of organs.
  • Offers support to members of the transplant community. These services include seminar planning, providing educational programs and workshops, and much more.
  • Provides assistance to patients, family members, and friends, and sets professional standards for efficiency and quality patient care.
  • Raises public awareness about the importance of organ donation.
  • Works to keep patients informed about transplant issues and policies.
  • Offers comprehensive travel and event planning to assist organizations within the transplant community.

Credits

By Healthwise Staff
Primary Medical Reviewer E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Anne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine
Last Revised January 3, 2012

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